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CF /,a-.vv'»7i'/s- 



THE BLACK STUDENT IN 
THE WISCONSIN STATE 
UNIVERSITIES SYSTEM 



Thurgood Marshall i.aw Library 
The University of Maryland School of Law 



U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS 

WISCONSIN STATE COMMITTEE 

OCTOBER 1971 



'^^^or 






WISCONSIN STATE COMMITTEE TO THE 
U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS 



Percy L. Jllian, Jr., Chainnun ' 
Madison 

Angelo J. La Mere, Vice Chairman 
R ingle 

CoRNr;i,U!S P. Cotter, Secretary 
Milwaukee 

Bruno Bitker ^ Arthuro C. Go.nzales 

Milwaukee Racine 

Robert D. Fagaly, Jr.'^ George J. Pazik 

Thiensville Milwaukee 

Robert H. Friebert Clara Penniman 

Milwaukee Madison 

Larry Reed 
Milwaukee 



Prepared by Cornelius P. Cotter, Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Campus, with 
the stafT assistance of Thomas Niggeman, Midwestern Field Office, Office of Community Programing. 

I. T. Creswell, Assistant Staff Director for Community Programing. 

John A. Buggs, Acting Staff Director. 

CRI.:W75/2 

' During the conduct of this research, George J. Pazik was Chairman of the Wisconsin State Committee. Upon Mr. 
Pazik's resignation in March 1971, Mr. Julian succeeded him as Chairman. 
^ No longer a member. 

For Bale by the Superintendent of Documents, I'.S. Government Printing OiBce 
WaBhington, D.C. 20402— Price SI 

Stock Number 0500-0069 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PREFACE jy 

INTRODUCTION 1 

SUMMARY ' 4 

1. DISTRIBUTION OF BLACK STUDENTS IN THE WSU SYSTEm! 9 

WSU's as local resources q 

WSU's have a broad clientele 9 

Toward a norm for WSU minority enrollment 10 

Accounting for the present distribution of black students on WSU 

campuses _ 10 

2. BLACK STUDENTS ON THE WSU CAMPUS: PROBLEMS OF 

ACADEMIC SURVIVAL I7 

The need for academic assistance I7 

Recruitment by WSU institutions 28 

Admission standards _ _ jg 

Retention and future enrollment I9 

Treatment of international students 20 

Scholastic help and curriculum change __ 21 

Orien lalion 91 

Counseling 99 

Remedial programs and tutoring 23 

Curriculum change _ 24 

Financial aids _ _ 24 

The Wisconsin Higher Flducational Aids Board 24 

Financial aids on the WSU campus 26 

Miuoril) staffing and the minority student 30 

Generic staffing problems 3O 

Black facult\ 09 

3. BLACK COHESION AND INTEGRATION AT WISCONSIN STATE 

UNIVERSITIES 35 

Separatism at the WSU's 35 

Problems of housing _ 3^ 

Dormitory housing _ 3^ 

Off-campus housing 37 

Black student organization 39 

Black participation in extracurricular events. 40 

Athletics _ ti 

4. PROBLEMS IN TOWn'."]]!!!!"'"]!]!!"]"]"]]"]"""'" 43 

Unwelcome guests 43 

WSU community relations programs 43 

Black students and local police _ 44 

WSU-city police cooperation 47 

Multi|)le jurisdictions 49 

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 53 

APPENDICES ...'..'..[ 61 



TABLES AND FIGURES 

Table 
No. Page 

1.1 Distribution of WSU Minority Knrollment, Wisconsin Resident, Out- 

of-State, International 10 

1.2 Wisconsin, Out-of-State, and "International" Minority Students at 

WSU's 1970 - 11 

1.3 Index of Local Campus Integration 11 

1.4 Wisconsin Population and UW/UWM and WSU Minority Enrollment. 12 

1.5 Present WSU Black Enrollment and Black Enrollment Projer-ted on 

85: 15 Ratio Numbers of Out-of-State and International Minority 

Students Constant 12 

16. WSU 1970 71 Enrollment as Percentage of Projected Maxima for 1980. 13 

1.7 Correlates of Distribution of Total WSU Enrollment — 1970 14 

1.8 Out-of-State Black Students as Percentage of Total Black Enrollment 

on Local WSU Campuses 16 

2.1 State and Federal Aids 26 

2.2 WSU System Fee Chart (Undergraduate) 28 

2.3 WSU Minority Faculty Employment 33 

4.1 Local WSU Enrollment in Relation to Population of Host City 45 

4.2 Comparative Strength of WSU Security Forces and Local Municipal 

Police Departments 48 

A.l-A.lO WSU and UWM Enrollment, Employment, and County 

Population Data by School Appendix A 

B.1-B.4 Discrepancy between Total Minority Students Reported to 

HEW, OCR and to CCR WIS. SAC Appendix B 

Figures 
1.1 Wisconsin's University Systems 10 



u 



PREFACE 



THE UNITED STATES COMMISSION ON 
CIVIL RIGHTS 

The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, created 
by the Civil Rights Act of 1957, is an independent 
agencv of the excriitivc branch of the Federal 
Government. Bv the terms of the act, as amended 
by the Civil Rights Acts of 1960 and 1964, the 
Commission is charged '.villi tlie following duties: 
investigation of iiidividp.al di-scriminatorv denials 
of right to vote; study of legal developments with 
respect to denials of the equal protection of the 
law: appraisal of the laws and policies of the 
United States with respect to denials of equal 
protection of the law; and investigation of 
patterns or practices of fraud or discrimination 
in the conduct of Federal elections. The Com- 
mission is also required to submit reports to the 
President and the Congress at such times as the 
Commission, the Congress, or the President shall 
deem desirable. 

THE STATE COMMITTEES 

A State Committee lo the United States Com- 
mission on Civil Rights has been established in 
each of the oO .Stales and the District of (Columbia 
|iiirsuant lo section lO.S (c) of the Civil Rigiits Act 



of 1957, as amended. The Committees are made up 
of resj)onsible persons who serve without ••ompen- 
sation. Their functions under their mandate from 
the Commission are to: advise the Commission 
upon matters of mutual concern in the prepara- 
tion of reports to the Commission, to the 
President, and the Congress; receive reports, 
suggestions, and recommendations from indi- 
viduals, public and private organizations, and 
public officials upon matters pertinent to in- 
quiries conducted by the State Committee; ini- 
tiate and forward advice and recommendations 
to the Commission in matters in which the 
Commision shall request the assistance of the 
State Committee; and attend, as observers, any 
open hearing or conference which the Com- 
mission may hold within the State. 

This report was submitted to the United States 
Commission on Civil Rigiits by the Wisconsin 
State Committee. The conclusions and recommen- 
dations are based upon the Committee's evalua- 
tion of information received as a result of investi- 
gations iindertakeii by the Committee from 
August 1970 to March 1971. This report has been 
received b\ the Commission and will be considered 
h\ it in niakinj; its reports and rccoriiinendalions 

gress. 



to the President and the Con 



ui 



INTRODUCTION 



The Wisconsin State Committee and the U.S. 
Commission on Civil Rights have received many 
complaints of discrimination against minority 
students on the campuses and in the communities 
which house the Wisconsin State Universities. 
The Committee and Commission staff reviewed 
the complaints and decided to conduct an inquiry 
into problems associated with minority enroll- 
ment, more specifically, black enrollment, in the 
Wisconsin State University System. 

The complaints received pertained mostly 
to spectacular events at WSU-Whitewater and 
WSU-Oshkosh. In each case the local WSU ad- 
ministration instituted disciplinary action against 
a group of black students who allegedly com- 
mitted acts of mass violence. In each instance 
special academic disciplinary proceedings were 
instituted by the OflSce of WSU Regents in 
Madison, and students were additionally tried in 
court on criminal complaints. 

The State Committee deemed it necessary to 
include VI hitewater and Oshkosh in its survey, 
but prudent to visit other schools in the system 
prior to conducting interviews on those two 
campuses. Platteville and River Falls were chosen 
as the two additional schools to visit because, 
while in contrast to Whitewater in enrollment 
size, they were reported to have high (for the 
WSU System) ratios of black enrollment. 

The first action taken by the Committee was to 
send a Commission on Civil Rights staff member 
and a State Committee member to Madison, 
Wisconsin to discuss WSU problems and the 
Committee's prospective inquiry with Eugene 
R. McPhee, Executive Director of State Uni- 
versities and Secretary of the Board of Regents. 
In this meeting, on August 10, 1970, Mr. McPhee 
offered assurances of ^'SU System cooperation 
in the inquiry and undertook to write the WSU 
presidents enlisting their cooperation. 

The CCR State Committee inquiry then pro- 
ceeded, with two members of the Committee and 
one Commission staff member composing teams 



to visit the Wisconsin State Universities at 
Platteville, Oshkosh, River Falls, and Vt'hitewater. 
Site visits took place during the period October 
1970-March 1971. In addition, questionnaires 
were circulated to the nine WSU institutions and 
their four satellite campuses. This report is based 
upon the data and impressions gained from the 
extensive interviews conducted on campus and 
in the local communities, and from the responses 
to the questionnaires. 

The figure which follows gives the composition 
of the visiting teams, the dates of visitation, and 
the topics covered in interviews conducted on 
the four compuses. It has not been possible to 
treat all of the topics in this report and it has 
been necessary not merely to omit some topics, 
but to give abbreviated treatment to some 
topics deserving of full-scale study and lengthy 
analysis. 

We have attempted to respect the assurances 
of confidentiahty which we gave to informants, 
yet accept responsibility for documenting sources 
of factual allegations, perceptions, and opinions 
which are the basis for much of the reporting 
and analysis which follow. We use capital letters 
to indicate schools code numbers for informants, 
and numbers for page references in file notes, to 
identify sources. 

school informant file page 

\ i y 

(D/14/37) 

It is thus possible, while preserving confi- 
dentiahty, to respond to inquiries concerning 
interview materials. The letter A designated 
WSU-Platteville, B = River Falls, C = White- 
water, D = Oshkosh, and W = WSU System 
officials located in Madison. 

As the interview notes, the statistical data 
collected by questionnaires directed to the nine 
WSU institutions are available in Commission 
files. 



Black sludent recruitment 

Enrollrncnl and rclcnlion _. 

Geographic distribution of students 

Counseling, remedial work, orientation. . 

Acadeniic fields of concentration 

Problems of housing 

Financial aids 

Athletics - 

W.S.U. student newspaper 

International students 

Spanish speaking students 

American Indians 

Social groups on campus 

Black organizations on campus 

Black staffing 

Incidents 

Campus security and local police 

Treatment of black students in town 

Environmental problems 

W.S.U. — community relations 

Campus human relations committees 

Comment on central offices in Madison _ _ 
Attitudes of local W.S.U. administrators. 



Plattevllle 



X 
X 



River Kail* 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



Whitewater I 0>),kMti 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 

\ 

X 
X 
X 



x 

X 



X 

X 
X 
X 
X 



\ 

X 
X 
X 

\ 



X 

X 



PlatteviUe, Cornelius P. Cotter and George J. Pazik, Oct. 1-2, 1970. Oshkosli, Ttiomas L. Niggemann and George J. 
Pazik, Dec. 9-11, 1970. River Falls, Cornelius P. Cotter and Thomas L. Niggemann, Feb. 1-2, 1971. \^'hitewate^. Cornelius 
P. Cotter and George J. Pazik, Mar. 10-11, 1971. 



The administration of higher education in 
Wisconsin. 

At the time of this inquiry, Wisconsin had a 
dual system of higher education which had been 
in existence for more than a century. The Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin was first authorized by law 
of the territorial legislature in 1836, although it 
was not orgaruzed until 1848. Legislation of 
1857 provided for the funding of a State normal 
school system and created a Board of Regents of 
Normal Schools. The first normal school opened 
in PlatteviUe in 1866 and the ninth opened in 
Eau Claire 50 years later. The normal schools 
became State teacher colleges with 4-year pro- 
grams leading to the bachelor of education degree 
in 1927. In 1951 liberal arts programs were 
authorized and they were redesignated State 
coUeges. In 1964, with selected graduate work 



and expanded programs, the Wisconsin State 
University appellation was attached with the 
place name of the schools. 

The WSU System is governed by a IS-member 
appointive board of regents, which must include 
at least one woman, and which has traditionally 
included a member from the vicinity of each ^ SU 
campus. Although increasing numbers of Mil- 
waukee students attend WSU's, by tradition the 
board does not include a Milwaukee resident. The 
chief administrative officer is the executive di- 
rector of State universities and secretary of the 
board. Each institution has its own president. The 
individual WSU's appear to have areas of con- 
siderable autonomy, and areas in which they are 
held to strict conformance to central office 
direction. A tradition exists of close rapport 
between the local regent and the local ^ SL 
president. 



By 1970 the University of Wisconsin — some- 
times assumed to be coextensive with the Madison 
campus by persons not famihar with the Badger 
State — was a complex of associated institutions, 
with major campuses at Madison and Milwaukee, 
additional campuses at Green Bay and Parkside, 
and with seven additional 2-year Centers. The 
system is administered by a board of regents and 
a president. Each of the four campuses has relative 
autonomy under a chancellor, and the centers are 
responsible to a center system chancellor. 

In 1970-71 the Wisconsin State Universities 
and the University of )X isconsin were discrete 
systems with separate boards of regents and 
administrations. In 1971 Governor Patrick J. 
Lucey proposed a merger of the two systems, and 
that merger was pending at the time this report 
was written. 

A Coordinating Council for Higher Education, 



first created under a different name in 1955, 
seeks to coordinate the planning and develop- 
ment of the ^'SU and the UW Systems, together 
with the Wisconsin schools of vocational, tech- 
nical, and adult education, and the surviving 
county teachers colleges. The council has de- 
veloped a 10-year plan for academic development 
of the State's public universities, 1970-80. The 
council is a 17-member, appointive bodv, which 
includes a regent from each of the two major 
university systems. 

The Higher Educational Aids Board was first 
established in 1963 to administer Title 1 of the 
Federal Higher Education Facihties Act of 1963 
in Wisconsin. In 1963 it acquired substantial 
student financial aid responsibilities, and its 
present name. It is a 15-member, appointive 
body, with five of its members nominated by 
the CCHE. 



SUMMARY 

THE BLACK STUDENT IN 
THE WISCONSIN STATE 
UNIVERSITIES SYSTEM 

Distribution of black students in the WSU System 



WSU's as local resources 

The tradition of localism in Wisconsin higher 
education is strong. While the nine WSU campuses 
are scattered unevenly through the State, the 
idea of providing college education facilities at 
the local level has been a guiding concept of the 
WSU System. 

It can be questioned, however, whether the 
nine WSU's are to be regarded as having an 
exclusive or predominant responsibility to the 
population of the surrounding counties. Do they 
recognize a broader responsibility to serve as an 
intergrated statewide educational resource for 
all Wisconsinites? The WSU tradition of local 
availability with a degree of control exercised 
by the regent from the local community is not a 
tradition which consciously nurtures provincialism 
or exclusion. 



WSU's have a broad clientele 

WSU institutions enrolled students from all 
50 States and 37 foreign countries in 1970-71. 
Of the 1,176 minority students enrolled, 633 
or 54 percent come from other States or abroad. 
By contrast, more than 85 percent of the white 
student body comes from Wisconsin. 

Measured by enrollment data, the WSU System 
commitment to educating minority students is 
chiefly a commitment to international and out-of- 
State minority students. The data hardly depict 
xenophobic or even provincial institutions whose 
worlds are restricted to their radial counties. 



Whatever their tendency toward local enroll- 
ment, the WSU's serve a statewide, nationwide, 
and worldwide student clientele — in that order 
for whites, and reverse order for minorities. 

Toward a norm for minority enrollment 

Because nearly three-fourths of the State's 
minoritv population is located in one county, an 
admission policy based only on geographic 
proximity would result in a segregated dual 
system. A State university system must think 
in terms of State population. State problems, 
and State needs in addressing the question of 
minoritv distribution. Demographic, geographic, 
and other factors wliich may relate to the limited 
diffusion of minority students in the Wisconsin 
State Universities System germane to explaining 
restricted minority distribution indicate that 
individual recruiting efforts have played as 
effective a role in bringing nonwhite students 
to WSU campuses as any other factor. 

River Falls, located 315 miles from Milwaukee, 
has a student body of 3,586. It reported 44 
Wisconsin black students in its population. On 
the other hand Stevens Point, with an enrollment 
of 7,771, numbered only 12 Wisconsin blacks, 
despite its considerably closer proximity to 
Milwaukee (155 miles). River Falls administrators 
attributed the large contingent of black students 
to their close working relationship developed 
with the Milwaukee Educational Opportunity 
Center (MEOC), a wing of the higher educational 
aids board, which conducts a talent search pro- 



4 



gram attempting to place inner-city high school 
students in State colleges and universities. That 
F{iver Falls and Platteville have been major 
participants in the program was ascribed largely 
to the contacts which a former MEOC director 
had at those two schools. 

A passive central administration combined with 
local administrations and faculties which vary 
from encouragement to indifference to discourage- 
ment of minority enrollment accounts for the 
extremelv uneven pattern of minority student 
distribution on the nine WSU campuses. 

The ^ isconsin State Committee offers as norm 
for Wisconsin black enrollment the existing 
ratio of overall resident participation in the 
system. The WSL yearbook, states that "more 
than 85 percent of the total student enrollment 
(in the WSU System) consists of young people 
from Wisconsin homes." In the case of minority 
students, only 46 percent come from ^ isconsin; 
the majority are from out of State or abroad. 

Raising the resident black enrollment to the 
overall 85:15 proportion would require quad- 
rupling of the current black student population 
in the system. This would change the ratio of 
Wisconsin black students to total enrollment 
from the present six-tenths of 1 percent to 2 
percent, which is measly in relation to need and 
when compared to a State population ratio of 2.90 
percent. Black enrollment should more than 
keep pace with the expected increase in enroll- 
ment over the next decade. 

The WSU System should consider relevant 
criteria for a more even distribution of black 
students and should develop incentives to local 
administrators and to prospective black students 
toward accomplishing a more rational distribu- 
tion. Finallv, willingness to admit black students 
and positive action by way of a talent search 
will be meaningless unless financial aid oppor- 
tunities are expanded to meet the increasing 
needs of increasing black enrollment. Central 
office involvement is indispensable to this goal. 



The Problem of Academic Survival 



need — in the initial years of their introduction 
into the W SU System at least — special scholastic 
and financial help and at least the minimal 
confidence that some black staff would provide. 
They must be assumed to need assurance that 
they are not entering a system which is hostile 
in its ubiquitous whiteness and rejects the black 
aspects of the American experience. 

Recruitment, admission, retention 

Minority recruitment practices, as indicated, 
vary in intensity among local administrations, 
with the Milwaukee Educational Opportunity 
Center functioning as talent supplier to the 
system. 

Campuses visited have relaxed procedures for 
admitting black students. Administrators are 
sympathetic in making allowances for late or 
irregular applications for admission and financial 
aid. This is followed by laxness in providing 
scholastic help to the students who have been 
admitted. Estimates by authoritative sources 
place dropout rates for black students as high as 
80 percent. If public policy dictates admission 
of students who will require extra academic 
help to survive, it likewise dictates that such 
help be provided. Black students perceive that 
without such help they will be a passing phe- 
nomenon on WSU campuses. 

Treatment of international students 

Quite elaborate programs appropriately exist 
in the WSU System to acclimate international 
students and to sensitize local communities to 
their presence. Similar orientation programs 
are lacking for American black students. Com- 
mission representatives discerned no inclination 
by administrators to regard the international 
experience as programiuatically significant or 
analagous to the situation of minority students. 
International students are regarded as "higher 
class" and an asset to the community's self- 
image; American blacks are feared as potential 
trouble makers or permanent residents. 



The recent and precipitous arrival of Wisconsin 
blacks on WSU campuses, which some believe 
has been stimulated by the Federal funding 
requirement of nondiscrimination, has resulted 
in manifohl areas of dislocation. Black students 
from Milwaukee's core must be presumed to 



Counseling, remedial programs, curriculum 
change 

One campus, Oshkosh, introduced a pilot 
program for marginal students in August 1970. 
Black students could not afford to attend. 



Arrangements to ineliide lilark BtiidentR in 
this tyjx' of propram as a form of |tr<Tcgihlratioii 
could be extremely beneficial to new black 
stiiflents and to the WSU's which offer such 
programs. That counseling services are a hit-or- 
miss part time affair was a view shared by students 
and staff members, black and white. The need 
for a type of ombudsman for minority groups 
received frequent and aeross-thc-board support. 
Curricidum changes should be introduced to 
include the black experience wherever this is 
relevant to course content. 

The WSL''s which attract minority students 
have thus far shown little concern for their 
survival prospects. The tendency has been to 
assume the school has discharged its full re- 
sponsibility in admitting minority students and 
providing them access to higher education 
facilities. If the student cannot make it, that is 
bis concern. Wisconsin's minority youth needs 
scholastic survival kits and systematic help in 
using them. These would include effective and 
continuing counseling, availability of remedial 
basic courses, and tutoring. Such programs can 
best be developed on the WSU campuses, with 
system leadership and budget aid, and with 
minority student participation. 

Financial aids 

At present the Higher Educational Aids Board 
designs the financial aid application and acts as 
a conduit for moving applications from high 
school to the colleges designated by applicants. 
Final discretion in drawing up a financial aid 
package and making an offer to the student lies 
at the campus level. This means that existing 
patterns of financial aid are influenced by the 
personal and institutional idiosyncracies of the 
local WSU financial aids office. Unless and until 
the HEAB or another appropriate agency is 
given central responsibility for tailoring individual 
financial aid programs for students and admin- 
istering such programs, uneven patterns among 
the WSU schools will act as a source of confusion, 
hardship, and deterrence to students, particularly 
minority students. 

The confusing formulae for determining loan/' 
grant eligibility trouble incoming and returning 
students. Administrators and students recognize 
that the prominence of the loan portion of the 
financial aid packages is a hardship for students 
and deterrent for f)otcntial students. The calcula- 



tion of financial need should recognize that 
low-ini:ome Htudents, who earn lehb and muht 
contribute more to their families, cannot Have 
as much from summer jobs as other students. 

Min<)rity .staffing 

The WSU tenure rule may be regarded as 
afforfling great protection and convenience to 
faculty. One of its chief conveniences mav be 
the absence of a formal process of tenure review. 
But it is thought by many persons that the 
practical need to make a decision on a person 
in bis fourth year leads to conservatism in 
staffing — a tendency to let go in their fifth vear 
any persons who seem to have boat-rtx-king 
qualities. Thus, some believe, qualities of timidity 
and conservatism lead to tenure and reinforce- 
ment of a timid and conservative facultv: a 
reformist zeal and commitment to social change 
leads, at best, to a job at another institution. 

^ SU administrators have shown varying but 
positive interest in black recruitment. However, 
this interest is strictly constrained bv present 
institutional policies, and is not accompanied bv 
an inclination to bend or waive them. This 
results in a situation most appropriately described 
as institutional racism. 

^ hile employment of minority personnel in 
every job classification is uniformly low, certain 
categories are especially in need of minority 
representation because of the critical importance 
they hold for minority students. These include 
the areas of counseling, housing, athletics, and 
campus security, in addition to faculty positions. 

Separatism 

In the absence of any prior life experience 
suggesting that the dominant white society is 
seriously" interested in association with blacks in 
residential neighborhoods, in school, plav. or 
employment, the predilection of the black student 
for the strength and security of association with 
other blacks becomes understandable. 

Housing 

The superfluity of dormitory space pressures 
WSU regents and administrators to force a 
landlord-tenant relationship upon students. All 
freshmen and sophomores must spend four se- 
mesters in residence halls. This forced inclusion 



breeds resentment no less real althiiugh certainly 
less vehement than that fostered by forced 
exclusion. 

Black students resent any hint of forced 
clustering, and mav take "chance" concentration 
of blacks in a housing facility as confirmation of 
a policy of segregatitm. Black students appear 
inclined to cluster if permitted to follow their 
own preferences, and resent administrative prac- 
tices which prevent them from rooming together. 
Thev object, in short, either to compulsory 
segregation or compulsory integration. To see a 
logical anomaly in this position would be rather 
shallow. Certainly it expresses a degree of in- 
dividualism with which administrators should be 
able to live. 

Viith respect to off-campus housing, in each 
of the four campuses visited, townspeople are 
obdurate in practicing housing discrimination 
against black students. In 1969, the WSU System 
abolished its policy of approving off-campus 
housing. Nondiscrimination had been one criterion 
for approval. Revocation of the approved list 
has removed the university as a source of sanctions 
to assure nondiscriminatory housing off-campus. 
The WSU's have instituted no fair housing 
programs to fill this vacuum. The officials of the 
^ SL host communities do not place fair housing 
high on their agendas for action. They do seem 
concerned about the quality of housing offered 
students in town. 

Black student organization 

Each of the campuses visited has a black 
student organization. These serve a social and 
an action function. As the black organizaticms 
serve as vehicles for developing black student 
demands, ^SL administrators have come to 
regard black organizations as unwanted separa- 
tism on campus. Official ^ SU System response 
to demands for a black cultural center at Vt hite- 
water has been to establish a multicultural 
center for foreign and minority students. It is 
revealing and not surprising that the official 
respons<- should, instead of emphasizing the 
cultural [iluralism of the United States, appear 
to link American minority cultures to those of 
the most alien and therefore exotic students on 
the ^ SL campuses, the international students. 
Additionally, the recently successful center at 
Oshkosh is expected to be moved from its present 
site to a multicultural setting. 



Extracurricular events 

Black participation in outside activities, while 
small, is significant. At River Falls two black 
students sit in the student senate, and the 
Winter Carnival king and queen were black. 
There seems to be increasing willingness among 
Whitewater black students to work within the 
system. 

Athletics was frequently cited as a sharp 
cutting edge betyveen the races. On three of the 
four campuses studied, white coaches are per- 
ceived as the most racially biased bloc on campus. 
Coaches recruit from white schools, and are 
under some pressure to favor local talent. Black 
students feel that blacks must be superstars or 
they will not be given playing time. This general 
indictment of athletics, extending to players, 
coaches, letterman groups, and fraternities met 
with very few exceptions among the students 
interviewed. Black students feel intensely ag- 
grieved by the athletic situation. 



Problems in Campus Towns 

I nwelcomc guests 

Black students feel they are regarded as in- 
truders in the WSU host communities. They may 
have a legal right to be there and to attend the 
local WSU, but it is difficult for townspeople 
and some students to see why they should want 
to come or why they should be tolerated, much 
less welcomed. 

Foreign students receive a warmer reception 
in the WSU towns than do native Wisconsin 
blacks. 

WSU-communily relations 

The schools visited lacked any formal, focused 
program for sensitizing the local communities 
toward minority students. Only informal, sporadic 
attempts have been made to build up community 
receptiveness. Sometimes these come in the 
wake of an incident, and die as soon as initial 
town furor flags. 

The record clearly tells a story of lack of will, 
skill, or sense of appropriateness to develop a 
vigorous program of campus-community relations, 
under the aegis of the VtSU, and having among 
its purposes the acculturation of the community 
to '\merican minority group students. 



Black students and municipal police 

In many WSU campiiH towns, ilic University 
con8tilul(?s the major induwlry, generating con- 
siderable impact on local governments and local 
economies. One cost which rises with [)0|>ulalion 
influx is that for public safety. The introduction 
each year of a highly compacted increment 
amounting to one-lhird to three-quarters of a 
local community's population spells |)olicing 
problems of varied quality and greater magnitude 
than woultl be confronted by a noncollege town 
with a stable population. 

Campus security forces are in the process of 
enlargement and professionalization. According 
to the WSU System office campus security 
coordinator, the new coordination effort was 
precipitated by recent campus disturbances. 

One purpose of the enlarged and better trained 
campus security should be to prevent, through 
improved human and race relations, the escalation 
of minor incidents into serious disturbances. 

At three of the four campuses studied, black 
students are quite vocal in complaining about 
police. At Whitewater a good deal of black 
student resentment is directed at agencies of 
justice at the county seat, Elkborn, where 
disciplinary hearings and trials have been held. 
An important and widespread black student 
complaint, and one which underlies their percep- 
tion that they do not receive equal treatment 
from police, is that white complaints against 
blacks are treated as presumptively valid, and 
black students are questioned in an atmosphere 
suggesting that presumption. When police are 
called to deal with a conflict situation involving 
blacks and whites, they invariably talk first with 
the white students involved, the implication 
being that the white students are the most 
authoritative or reliable source of information. 



Poli<-e authoriticH re()ly that black Ktudents are 
unrluly senHitive. 

The outstanding example of differential treat- 
ment of black hludentH bv fK>lire is at Flalte\ille, 
where the practici- is lo tranhfer arrested black 
students to Lancaster, the county seat. \J bite 
students, when arrested, are housed in Flatteville. 

Multiple jurigdictions 

The campus, in theory at least, offers no 
refuge from Fefleral, .State, or l<K'al laws. In 
addition, it has its own system of norms developed 
for the institution and sometimes enforced for 
behavior occurring off campus or applied to 
reinforce the norm of another jurisdiction. 
Student behavior can result in disciplinary pro- 
ceedings by the WSU unit, trial in municipal, 
county, or circuit (State) courts, or Federal 
Agencies; these may follow investigation and 
apprehension by WSU securitv personnel, mu- 
nicipal police, or county sheriff's deputies. 

Only twice in WSU history, as far as can be 
determined, has the board of regents intervened in 
campus disciplinarv procedures by installing a 
special hearing agent of its own. In both instances 
the students (disciplined) so treated were black. 
One of the incidents, at Whitewater in December 
1969, took place off campus. That incident 
resulted in a situation in which students accused 
of violating WSU rules were tried in the county 
courthouse, with an assistant State attorney 
general prosecuting. 

The Oshkosh and Whitewater cases lend 
reality to black impressions of an interlocking 
white elite running an establishment which is 
cohesive enough to act in unity, and divided 
enough to permit the imposition of multiple 
penalties upon groups of blacks whose behavior 
has affronted the "svstem". 



PART 1. DISTRIBUTION OF 

BLACK STUDENTS IN 
THE WSU SYSTEM 



Distribution 

WSU's as local resources 

The tradition of localism in Wisconsin higher 
education is strong. Although compromise and 
historical vagary resulted in the clustering of 
some of the Vt isconsin State University campuses 
and the neglect of some portions of the State 
(the Northeast, for example), all of the campuses 
were established before the era of the automobile 
and paved roads, and obviously with a thought 
to providing college education (more especially, 
teacher training facilities) at the local level. 
Thus the concept of the commuter college, 
applied today to urban institutions such as the 
University of Vt isconsin-Milwaukec (UWM), is 
but an extension of the guiding concept which 
resulted in the Vi SU System.' 

Nine out of 10 Wisconsin high school graduates 
live within 30 miles of a WSU campus. Geographic 
proximity has been a factor in quadrupling the 
USU enrollment in the last decade. (W SL 
Yearbook 1970-71.) The question is whether the 
nine VtSU's are to be regarded as haying an 
exclusive or predominant responsibility to the 
population of their surrounding counties. Con- 
ceding that thev ma'- and should serve as com- 
muter schools for surrounding communities, do 
they recognize a broader responsibility, and are 
they bv public policy an integrated statewide 
educational n-source with a collective responsi- 
bility which transcends the immediate environs 
of the ^ SU campus and extends to meeting 
statewide needs? 



' Further r^iilrnrc i>f ihc prri*ii*lcnce of the traflilion itf ItiruliMin in 
the current effort in the ^'iM'oiiHin IrKiitlature to ituvc the 13 %«hieh reniuin 
out of Mtnie 55 ctMinty leuehcrH eolIegcH in the State. Thette were 2-yeur 
inttitulionM lejiiliiiK to a teacher'* rertiricate. and Hervinf; local ei)oi'utioi>al 
needa. (MiUaiikec Journal. Mar. IR. 1971.) 



Platteville estimates that 50 percent of its 
students come from a radius of 50 miles. These 
tend to be vocationally-oriented, first generation 
college students, from families which reside in 
rural areas or small towns where no black families 
are resident. (A/1/6). At River Falls interviewers 
received an authoritative estimate that 25 percent 
of the students come from nearby Minnesota, 
60 percent of the in-State students come from 
four or five counties around River Falls, and that 
the Milwaukee white contingent represents about 
90 students or 3.6 percent of the student body. 
(B/2/3). 

The very location of some of the WSUs dictates 
that their student population, even if pre- 
dominentlv local, will be interstate in character. 
Platteville in the Southwest corner of the State, 
drawing from both Illinois and Iowa, La Crosse 
on the Mississippi across from Minnesota and 
just north of Iowa, River Falls and, to a lesser 
extent, perhaps Stout State and Eau Claire 
within the orbit of Minneapolis-St. Paul, and 
Superior wliieli impinges upon Duluth. all would 
attract nearby out-of-State students absent a 
legislative or regents' policy discouraging all but 
Wisconsin residents. 

The tradition of localism referred to above 
would seem to be a tradition t)f local availability, 
some local control (the tradition of a regent 
from each of the WSU communities, and of 
local WSU consultation with that regent), but 
not a tradition of exclusion or one which con- 
sciously nurtures provincialism. 

WSL's have a broad clientele 

Fvidence of the commitment of the local 
WSU insliiutions to reach out and serve a broad 
community is th<r positive value which they 



Tabic 1 .1 

DiMlrihiilion of Vi'SlI Minorily Enrollnu-nl. 

Vkisconsin Kositlenl, ()ul-<if-Slal<', 

International 





Minority 

N 


EnioUmcnt 
percent 


Wisconsin resident . . 

Out-of-State (United Stales).- 
International. .. - 


543 
188 
445 


46.17 
15.99 
37.84 






Total 


1,176 


100.00 



Source: CCR WIS. SAC enrollment survey. See "note" 
table 1.2. 



place upon having international students in 
residence. WSU institutions enrolled students 
from all 50 States and 37 foreign countries in 
1970 71. (JFSU Yearbook 1970 71.) The WSU 
enrollment data indicate that 38 percent of the 
black and other minority students on all of the 
WSU campuses are international students, i.e., 
come from abroad. Another 16 percent are 
out-of-State students. The remaining 46 percent 
are Wisconsin residents. (See tables 1.1 and 1.2.) 
Measured by enrollment data, the WSU system 
commitment to educating minority students is 
chiefly a commitment to international and 
out-of-State minority students. ^ bile 85 out of 
every 100 WSU students come from Wisconsin 
families, 54 out of every 100 minority students 
enrolled come from other States or abroad. 
These data hardly depict provincial institutions 
whose worlds are restricted to their radial counties. 

Toward a norm for WSU minority enroll- 
ment 

If we were to fictionaUze State policy to 
obhge each WSU institution to admit only from 
a radius of 50 miles (see fig. 1.1), and if the 
population of the 50-mile radial area were similar 
in complexion to the WSU host county popula- 
tion, the only WSU with a substantial obligation 
to enroll minority students would be W hitewater. 
The minority obligation of the other schools 
would be as slight as the minority population 
of their recruitment areas. 

Under such a poUcy we might compare the 
black enrollment on campus with the black 



|)<)|>iilati»n of the host countv and di-rivi- an 
index of NX.SL integration by taking the difference 
between the percentage of hIackH in the county 
|io|>iilation and I lie [x-rccntage of black hludentt- 
in ihe WSL enrollment. .As table 1.3 »hovK). 
none of the WSU institutions has a fH;rc«ntag«- 
blaik cnnillrncnt lower than the percentage of 
black p(jpulation in the hobt county. 1 he lowest 
score is zero for Stevens Point, where the two 
percentages coincide. But when we appiv this 
mode of analysis to LViM (not in the \X.SU 
system and used only for purposes of comparison) 
in Milwaukee, we begin to sense the unreality 
of it. UWM, with 434 black students attending 
in 1970-71, has a black enrollment of 3.45 percent 
in a host county which contains most of the 
minority population of the State and has a 
10.05 percent black population. The U^M score 
on such an index of local campus integration 
would appear woeful when compared to the 
W SU scores — not merely minus, but minus 6.49 



Figure 1.1 




—By a Journal Artist 
This map shows the University of Wisconsin and 
Wisconsin State Universities systems as 
they are now. 

Circle defines 50-niile radius of the WSU. 

Adapted from Milwaukee Journal, Apr. 11, 19T1. p. 6. 
(Printed with permission of the Journal Company.) 



10 



Table 1.2 
Wisconsin, Out-of-State, and "International" Minority Students at WSU's, 1970 





Black 


American Indian 


Oriental 


Spanish sumamed 




Wis- 


Out-of- 


Inter- 


Wis- 


Out-of- 


Wis- 


Out-of- 


Inter- 


Wis- 


Out-of- 


Inter- 




consin 


state 


national 


consin 


state 


consin 


state 


national 


consin 


state 


national 


Platteville 


38 


16 


14 


1 


1 


3 


4 


49 


3 


3 


ND 


Whitewater.. 


96 


26 


15 


5 


1 


14 


9 


52 


13 





ND 


Oshkosh 


58 


25 


11 


25 


1 








24 


9 


3 





River Falls. 


44 


3 


10 


13 


1 


4 


2 


29 


2 


1 





Stout State 


30 


22 


21 


9 





5 


2 


21 


3 


1 





Stevens Point. 


12 





4 


26 





4 


2 


38 


3 








Superior . 


4 


10 


12 


14 


2 





2 


68 





■-) 





La Crosse . 


17 


9 


1 


7 





2 


i 


28 


8 


I 





Eau Claire 


29 


23 


7 


23 





11 


4 


41 


5 


2 





Totals 


331 


134 


95 


123 


6 


43 


32 


350 


46 


16 






NoU: 

Platte\Tlle and Whitewater international students were not reported distributed by minority category. They have 
been distributed proportionately to the distribution reported by other sch(M)ls. Oshkosh reported .Vnierican and foreign 
students by minority grouping but did not break down American by Wisconsin and out-of-State. A similar distril)Ution 
has been made liere, based upon the proportions reported by other schook. 
Source: CCR WIS. SAC survey. 



Table 1.3 
Inde.Y of Local Campus Integration 





Percent 

black 

in 

enrollment 


Percent 

black in 

liost county 

population 


Index 

of local 

campus 

integration 


River Falls 

Platteville 


1.31 

1.28 

1.07 

1.29 

.74 

.69 

.62 

.51 

.15 


.16 
.14 
.19 
.45 
.11 
.14 
.19 
.08 
.15 


+ 1.15 
+ 1.14 


Stout State 

Whitewater 

Oshkosh 

Eau Claire 

Superior 

La Crosse 

Stevens Point 


+ .88 
+ .84 
+ .63 
+ .55 
+ .43 
+ .43 
.00 


UWM 


3.56 


10.05 


-6.49 



Derived from HEW OCR enrollment data smd census 
population data. 

Walworth is taken as host county for WSU-Whitewater 
which lies in Walworth and Jefferson Counties. 



percent. It enrolls a significantly lower percentage 
of blacks than the {)ercentage of the local black 
population. But Milwaukee County, with 23.86 
percent of the State'.s total population, has 71.85 
percent of the State's minority population. A 
policy which fixed responsibility for conducting 
the higher education of nearly three-fourths of the 
State's minority population on institutions located 
within the county in which that population is 
concentrated would be a policy of segregation — -in 
the most explicit sense a policy for a dual educa- 
tional system. 

It follows, then, that demographic, geographic, 
and other factors which may relate to the limited 
diffusion of minority students in the Vt isconsin 
Slate Universities System are germane to 
explaining restricted minority enrollment, but 
not to justifying it. 

It is necessary to abandon the containment 
model and to think in terms of State population. 
State j)roblems and needs, and statewide facilities 
for meeting those needs, if we are to achieve 
realistic analysis. 

If we accept the premise that the burden of 
meeting the higher education needs of Wisconsin's 



11 



Tai>Ic 1.4 

Wisconsin Population and I'W/l'WM and 
WSU Minorily Knrollmenl 

Percentage of tolal pitpulation/enroilment 





Black 


Otlier 
minority 


Stale of Wisconsin . 

9 WSU's 

UW Madison. 
UW Milwaukor. 


2.90% 

.83 
2.93 
3.56 


.69% 
.82 
.82 
.85 



Sources: HEW OCR 1970 survey. Census. 



minority youth is to be shared by the statewide 
array of public-supported institutions of higher 
education, it becomes desirable to frame some 
judgment on present performance of those 
institutions and appropriate future goals. 

Table 1.4 employs Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, Office of Civil Rights 
data,^ and U.S. Census data to compare the 
percentage of black population in the State of 
Wisconsin and the percentage of black students 
enrolled in the nine WSU institutions, UW 
Madison, and UWM. HEW OCR reports some 
447 black students in the WSU System, and 
1,091 for UW/UWM combined. These 1,538 
students comprise 1.74 percent of the total 
UW/UWM/WSU enrollment. By latest HEW 
OCR reports that total is 88,408. It is quite 
obvious from these data that the Wisconsin 
State Universities System is not carrying its 
appropriate share of the burden of educating the 
State's minority youth. UW Madison and 
Milwaukee each have black enrollment ratios 
which exceed the percentage of blacks in the 
State population. The WSU black enrollment 
ratio is grossly lower than both the black per- 
centage of the State population and the UW 
Madison and Milwaukee black ratios, although 
on other minorities it is on about par with the 
UW system. 

The argument may be made that the black 
ratio of the State population is an inappropriate 
standard for measurement. As reported by The 
Chronicle of Higher Education, March 29, 1971, 
"the proportion of black students at senior 



colleger and iiiiiviTHiticH htiJI doeh not :otn<- do-' 
to rcflccliiig riijly till- |>ro|j4>rlic>n of bla('k>- in tli 
total population," but there i» a trend lowanl 
growing black enrollmenl and reduction of racial 
imbalance. 'I'huts an\ gaj) iii-tween what ix, and 
what should be — the latter measured by uttme 
norm, such as ratio of black population in Stai- 
or .\ation —is appr(j|)riatel\ to be regarded .j 
a problem to deal with, not a matter of self- 
congratulation. The U.S. Census re[<orts that 
6.6 percent of the students enrolli-d in .\meri<an 
institutions of higher education in 1970 w«r 
black. This compares to a national po[)ulation 
ratio of 11.1 percent black, 'i'lie 1970 enrollment 
ratio is up from 6 percent in 1968 and 4.6 percent 
in 1965. The national norm is rising and we would 
expect that the State would set imreasingK 
high norms. 

We concede that a touch of arbitrariness lurks 
in any effort to prescribe governing norms, 
especially norms to be achieved by an institution 
other than the one which prescribes. 

Vk e cited earlier the ff^SU Yearbook statisti< 
to the effect that "more than 85 percent of the 
total student enrollment [in the ^'SU Svstem' 
consists of young people from ^X isconsin homes.' 
The statistic is presented in a context and style 
which suggest it is a matter of satisfaction ti. 
those who direct the system. Table 1.5 show - 
how the enroUment of black student.^ would 
grow if the WSU System maintained at least th'- 
absolute number of out-of-State and international 
black students while enlarging the number of 
Wisconsin black students to bring the ratio to 

Table 1.5 

Present WSU Black Enrollment and Black 

Enrollment Projected on 85:15 Ratio: 

Numbers of Out-of-State and 

International Minoritv Students Constant 



2 See Appendix B for analysis of HEW OCR data in relation to CCR 
Wisconsin State Committee data. 





1970-71 

black 

enrollment 

(percent) 


Projected black 

enrollment on 

85/15 ratio (percecT 


Wisconsin 

Out-of-State 

International 


(59.11) 331 
(23.93) 134 
(16.96) 95 


(85) 1,297 
(15) 229 


Totals 


560 


(100) 1,526 



Source: Derived from table 1.2. 



12 



85 percent Wisconsin residents and 15 percent 
out-of-State and international. But even so 
dramatic a reversal of ratios as this formula 
would accomplish would, in quadrupling Wis- 
consin hlack enrollment in the VtSU System 
from 331 to 1.297 (given a stable enrollment of 
54,807), have a result which is measly in relation 
to need and to the ratio of black population in 
the State. Such a change would increase the 
percentage of Wisconsin black students in the 
\^ SL"s from six -tenths of 1 percent to 2 percent, 
which does not compare at all favorably with a 
black State population ratio of 2.90. (See tables 
1.1. 1.2, 1.4.) 

The present condition is so abysmal that we 
are driven to the conclusion the WSU's will 
have to make Herculean efforts if they are to 
brine their Vi isconsin black student enrollment 
to a level at which it is even possible to employ 
norms as realistic measures of performance. 
The reservoir of motivated and needy students 
exists in Milwaukee, and the Milwaukee Educa- 
tional Opportunity Center, with its talent search 
program, is anxious to be enlisted in the recruit- 
ment effort. It is reasonable to expect that the 
extension to Milwaukee core high schools of 
the same attention paid by Vt SL's to other high 
schools in the State, and cooperation with the 
MEOC, would increase the black enrollment. 

Translation of the 85/15 ratio into absolute 
numbers in table 1.5 is predicated upon stable 
enrollment. Commission representatives heard 
predictions of stable or declining enrollment on 
WSL campuses visited. If any credence is to be 
placed in the projections published by the 
Wisconsin Coordinating Council for Higher Ed- 
ucation (CCHEj in 1969, enrollments will increase 
from the present 60 percent of projected capacity 
to about 100 percent by 1980. (See table 1.6 i 
Black enrollment should more than keep pace 
with this development. 

Finally . willingness to admit, and positive 
action by way of a talent search, will be meaning- 
less unless fmancial aid opportunities are ex- 
panded to meet the increasing needs of increasing 
black enrollment. We review financial aid prol)- 
lems later in this report. 

Accounting for the present distribulion of 
black students on WSU campuses 

^SL officials concur black enrollment will 
increase — whether bv the norm expres.-;ed above 



Table 1.6 



WSU 1970-71 Enrollment as Percentage 
of Projected Maxima for 1980 





1970-71 
enroUment 


CCHE ISSO. 
maximum 


1970-71 

enrollment 

as percent of 

maximum 


Stevens Point 

Whitewater 

Oslikosh . 
Superior 


7,771 
8,512 
9,525 
4,293 
3,586 
7,195 
4,557 
4.205 
5,163 


11,000 

12,500 

15,000 

7,000 

6,000 

12,500 

8,000 

8,000 

10,000 


70 
68 
63 
61 


River Falls 

Eau Claire . 


59 
57 


Stout State 


56 


PiatteNiile 

La Crosse 


52 
51 


All WSU's. - 


54,807 


90,000 


60 



Sources: 1970-71 enrollment diil.T HEW OCH ; iiinxima, 
Wisconsin Coordinating Council for Higher Education, 
Academic Plan 1970-80, 1969 Annual Report. 



or some other. The distribution of black students 
among the nine WSU campuses in 1970 has 
some pattern, but is also highly idiosyncratic. 
Large campuses geographically proximate to 
Milwaukee seem, as one would expect, to attract 
black students. But so do some of the smaller 
schools, remote from Milwaukee. Indeed, putting 
Whitewater and Oshkosh aside, the pattern of 
minority enrollment on the WSU campuses is 
so varied as to suggest that a neutral central 
administration and local administrations and 
faculties which have pronounced preferences 
for or against minority enrollment or are them- 
selves indifferent must in combination explain 
a good deal of the variance. Inevitably the 
question is raised whether, in a period of rising 
and stimulated black enrollment, the WSU 
System should consider what criteria are germane 
to the distribution of black students among the 
nine campuses, and should develop incentives 
to local administrators and to prospective black 
students toward accomplishing a more rational 
distribution. 

Table 1.7 makes possible a rude, visual estimate 
of the intercorrclation of factors seemingly related 
to the spread of black enrollment in the system. 
Vi e assume that what we want to explain is the 
proportionate sharing in total WSU black enroll- 



13 



Tabic 1.7 
Correlates of DiHlribution of Total WSIJ Enrollmt^nt — 1970 





Total WSU black 
enrollment • 


Local WSU black 
enrollment > 


Wiiiconain bUckx 
on caropiM • 


Enrollment > 


WaU from 

MUwaukcc • 




Rank 


Percent 


Rank 


Percent 


Rank 


Number 


Rank 


Total 


Rank 


Diatance 
(mile*; 


WhilPwatcr 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


24.60 

15.88 

12.08 

11.18 

10.96 

10.51 

6.08 

6.04 

2.68 


2 
5 
3 
6 
4 
1 
8 
7 
9 


1.29 
.74 

1.28 
.69 

1.07 

1.31 
.51 
.62 
.15 


1 

2 
4 
6 
5 
3 
7 
9 
8 


96 
58 
38 
29 
30 
44 
17 
7 
12 


2 

1 

7 
4 
6 
9 
5 
8 
3 


8,512 

9,. 525 
4,205 
7,195 
4,557 
3,586 


1 

2 
3 
6 

7 
8 


50 


Oshkosh 


8t 


Plallcville. . 


152 


Eau Claire 

Stout Slate .._ 

River Falls 


250 
276 
.115 


La Crosse 

Superior 


5,163 5 - 218 
4,293 9 ' 110 


Stevens Point 


7,771 


4 1 155 






100.01 














1 





















' HEW OCR enrollinent survey. 

* CCR WIS. SAC enrollment survey. 

' Wisconsin Automobile Club estimate. 



ment by the nine campuses. Thus the first column 
totals 100 percent and tells what the percentage 
distribution is among the campuses of the 447 
black students reported in the system by HEW. 
The presumption is that enrolling a high propor- 
tion of the system total of black students should 
intercorrelate with four other characteristics: 
having a high black ratio to local campus enroll- 
ment, having a high absolute number of Wisconsin 
black students on campus, having a high total 
student body, and geographic proximity to 
Milwaukee. If, in terms of the coarse measure- 
ment essayed, these factors were to intercorrelate 
perfectly on a given campus, the difference 
between the rank order of each would be zero. 
A large difference between the rank order of 
the highest and lowest rankings for a row suggests 
a discrepancy from the postulated relationship 
warranting explanation.^ 



fi A series of regression analyses was performed on data sets which 
reflected aspects of the WSU environments (distance from Milwaukee, 
home county populations, etc.) and the WSU internal systems (number 
of students, number of faculty, etc.). However, the small size of the 
sample (9) and the obvious idiosyncratic factors involved in minority 
student enrollment prevent the drawing of meaningful generalizations 
from the regression output. Therefore, tables reflecting these analyses 
have not been included in this report but are available on request. 



The rank difference scores are as follows: 

1. Whitewater. 

2. Eau Claire, Superior. 

3. Stout State, La Crosse. 

4. Oshkosh, Platteviile. 

6. Stevens Point. 

7. River FaUs. 

A high-rank difference score by no means 
necessarily implies a negative judgment on the 
performance of the school. Indeed, as in the 
case of River Falls, it may raise the question of 
why a school which, by every other indication, 
should have a low proportion of blacks on campus 
has such a high proportion when compared to 
the other WSU schools. A low-difference score 
merelv suggests a high correlation, but cannot 
tell us performance is good, for we are not stipu- 
lating a desiretl standard in this context. 

Whitewater has the lowest rank -difference 
score, quite sensibly, it would seem. As the 
WSU campus closest to Milwaukee and as the 
school with the second largest enrollment, 
Whitewater is first in the share of WSL System 
black enrollment (nearly 25 percent), first in 



14 



the number of Wisronsin black students enrolled, 
and second in ratio of blacks on campus to local 
enrollment. Eau Claire and Superior have rank 
difference scores of two. Eau Claire, sixth farthest 
from Milwaukee (2S0 miles compared to 105 
miles to downtown Minneapolis), varies between 
four and six in the other rankings. Superior, 
with rankings of seven, eight, and nine, is the 
most geographically remote of the schools from 
Milwaukee and is part of the Duluth-Superior 
standard metropolitan statistical area, as defined 
bv the Bureau of the Census. 

With Stout State and La Crosse we reach 
schools whose rank difference scores seem to 
invite explanation. On (he map Stout seems far, 
and is far — a hefty 276 miles — from Milwaukee. 
Seventh-ranking in distance from the area of 
concentration of the State's minority population, 
sixth in the size of its student body, it ranks 
fifth in the absolute number of Vt'isconsin black 
students on campus and in share of the total 
number of black students in the WSU System. 
Further, it is fourth in the percentage of black 
students in its enrollment. (Stout is 87 miles 
from downtown Minneapolis.) La Crosse, which 
is the modal school in terms of distance from 
Milwaukee and size of enrollment (four schools 
are farther and four closer, four have higher 
enrollments, four lower) ranks a surprising 
seventh in number of Wisconsin black students 
on campus and percentage share of total WSU 
black enrollment. It is next to last of all the 
schools in percentage of its black student body. 
(La Crosse is on the Mississippi River, across 
from Minnesota and just north of Iowa.) 

Oshkosh and I'latteville each has a rank differ- 
ence score of four. Oshkosh, with the highest 
total enrollment in the system, 34 miles farther 
from Milwaukee than AMiitewater, is first in 
size of total enrollment, but fifth in percentage 
of black enrollment. It is second to Whitewater 
in the proportion of WSU System black enroll- 
ment on its campus, but significantly second, 
in that there is an 8.72 percentage-point spread 
between it, the largest school, and \\ hitewater, 
the second largest, on this measure. No other 
consecutively ranked schools approach this point 
spread. It is second in the number of Vt isconsin 
black students on campus, but U hitewater, 
with 89 percent of Oshkosh's total enrollment, 
has 65 percent more >X isconsin black stu<lents; 
if one controls for enrollment, Whitewater has 
85 percent more Vt'isconsin black students than 



Oshkosh. These disparities raise questions in the 
minds of p<;rsons knowledgea' !<? about the WSU 
campuses. It is not our purpose to state the 
questions, much less answer them, in the im- 
mediate context. Whatever questions might be 
asked toward explaining the variance between 
Whitewater and Oshkosh on black enrollment 
are not answered by simply referring to "IJlack 
Thursday", November 21, 1968. which resulted 
in the expulsion of 94 black students from 
Oshkosh. Whitewater had its "Black Tuesday" 
December 16, 196*) when a racial incident oc- 
curred at the Phi Chi Epsilon house which 
resulted in the expulsion of 10 black students. 

Plattevilie's rank-difference score of four is 
accounted lor by the disparity between relatively 
low enrollment (seventh) in the WSU Svstem, 
and relatively high black enrollment propor- 
tionate to the number of students on campus. 
Insofar as there mav be a positive correlation 
between high ov<'rall enrollment and high propor- 
tion black, low overall enrollment and low 
proportion black, this may be offset in part at 
I'latteville by geographic proximity to Milwaukee. 
It is the third closest WSU to Milwaukee — 152 
miles away. (It is, incidentallv, 180 miles from 
Chicago, and the visitor to the campus is given 
the impression that the school falls within that 
orbit, also.) 

Stevens Point, with a rank difference score of 
six, and Platteville with a score of seven, put 
more of a strain on the assumptions of correlation 
stated above than do any of the other WSU's. 
Yet the correlation seems to hold for the other 
schools with sufficient consistency that the 
inquirer is inclined to think something is amiss 
at Stevens Point, rather than with the thesis. 
Third in number of students on campus, fourth 
in distance from Milwaukee, Stevens Point is 
eighth in number of Wisconsin black students 
on campus, and ninth in share of WSU System 
black stud<'nls and proportion of its enrollment 
black. W hyV 

The disparity is greater for River Falls, but it 
is necessary here to account for the high rank 
in proportion of its black enrollment (first in 
the system) conjoined with what we have assumed 
to be a major indicator of low black enrollment, 
namely, distance from Milwaukee. River Falls, 
315 miles from Milwaukee, is only less far from 
the State's metropolis than Superior. First in 
pro|>ortion of its student black body. River Falls 
is third in the number of Wisconsin black students 



IS 



luiihr i.n 



Out-of-State Black Students as Percentage of I'olal RIat-k Enrollment on l^jcal \^ SL' 







Black enrollment 




Out-otatate at percent o( toul 




Wisconsin 


Out-a(-Statc 


International 


Tdlul 


Ki:r»r.t Kank 


Eau Claire. 


29 


23 


7 


59 


38.98 ! 


Superior 


7 


10 


12 


29 


34.48 J 


La Crosse 


17 


9 


1 


27 


33.33 1 


Stout Stale 


30 


22 


21 


73 


.30.14 4 


Oshkosh_ - 


5« 


25 


11 


94 


26.60 5 


Platteville 


38 


16 


14 


68 


23.. 53 6 


Whitewater, 


96 


26 


15 


137 


18.98 7 


River Falls. 


14 


3 


10 


57 


5.26 8 


Stevens Point. 


12 





4 


16 


.00 9 

1 



Source: Derived from CCR WIS. SAC enrollment survey data. 



on campus, although sixth in its share of the 
total WSU System black enrollment. 

In this analysis parenthetic note has been 
taken of the proximitv of a school to the Wisconsin 
border, or the assumption that the school falls 
within the orbit of a city in a bordering State. 
River Falls is 57 miles from downtown Minne- 
apolis, and the Twiu Cities is the metropolitan 
reference point and transportation center for the 
campus. It is plausible to assume that the Eau 
Claire-Stout State-River Fall trio, closer by far 
to Minneapohs-St. Paul than to Milwaukee, 
might swell their black enrollment with a dis- 
proportionately large number of out -of -State 
black students. This would, for example, be a 
convenient explanation of River Falls' relatively 
high rank on black enrollment. The Minneapolis- 
St. Paul SMS.4 has a population of 1.8 million, 
2.76 percent of it minority; Chicago with a 
population in the SMS.\ approximating 7 milUon, 
has an 18.70 percent minority population, 1.2 
million of this group blacks. Duluth-Superior 
has a slight minority population, and Dubuque, 
near Platteville, even more slight. 

If proximity of rurally located ^ SU's to cities 
in adjoining States, or to their orbits, correlates 
with relatively high black enrollment, it is not 



because those schools are in each instance at- 
tracting disproportionately large numbers of 
out-of -State blacks. The attached Table 1.8 
gives the ranking of WSL's by percentage of 
total black enrollment on each out-of-State 
campus. Eau Clare ranks highest, and could be 
explained by Minneapolis-St. Paul. Superior, 
which is second, cannot be explained by [)roximit\ 
to a metropohs with a significantly high minorit\ 
population. La Crosse is similarlv inexplicable 
by this criterion. Stout State, which has a rela- 
tively high proportion, is one of the three schools 
within the Mineapolis-St. Paul orbit. But al- 
though it ranks fourth on ratio of out-of-State 
blacks to total black enrollment. River Falls, 
which is the closest of the three to the Twin 
Cities, has a small proportion of out-of-State 
blacks although a high relative black enrollment. 
Oshkosh, Platteville. and Whitewater presumably 
would be affected by proximity to Chicago. 

.4n explanation of black enrollment at River 
Falls would be that black students are attracted 
to campuses which, even if located in a rural 
setting, are close to big cities. This thesis is con- 
tradicted by interview data which suggest that 
black students are unhappv with lack of trans- 
portation and with the isolation of River Falls. 



16 



PART 2 BLACK STUDENTS ON THE 
WSU CAMPUS: PROBLEMS 
OF ACADEMIC SURVIVAL 



Academic Survival 

The need for academic assistance 

A large variety of policies and practices can 
be imagined and have been applied to the educa- 
tion of young people who happen to be black. 
The most obvious is not to educate them. The 
economic logic of this would be persuasive for 
a society which was adamantly determined to 
exclude the minority black population from all 
but the most menial labor. This policv, which 
has guided a number of States in the U.S. in 
more or less degree right into the second half of 
the 20th century, was, in its extreme form, found 
inconvenient even in a slave society. Owners of 
human properly found that value was in part a 
function of the skills of the chattel owned. As 
opportunities for menial employment decrease 
and the responsibility of the State for support of 
the unemployable becomes more explicit, this 
becomes a clearly expensive and inconvenient 
practice in a free democratic society. 

A second alternative is to put black vouth on 
an educational track leading to semiskilled jobs 
and excluding the option of a college education. 
A practice, once predominant, is still prevalent in 
the Lnited States, namelv, that of counselinK black 
high school students into curricula which preclude 
college and even rule out white-collar clerical 
and sales positions not requiring college. The 
Commission on Civil Rights has taken ample 
testimony on the practice of tailoring the cur- 
riculum of black or predominantly black high 
schools so as to reinforce the constriction of 
employment opportunity correctly gauged to exist 
in society. ICspecially in a segregated society, this 
alternative is modified to permit the training of a 
few black professionals to serve as physicians and 
teachers to the black populatiim. 



The society which rejects a policy of keeping a 
racial minority uneducated, and which recently 
has taken steps to end the practice of constricting 
educational opportunity for that group, finds 
the transition period perplexing and traumatic. 
First of all, it is most likely that the decision to 
end discriminatory practices came in response 
to the insistent demand of a minority population, 
increasingly self-assertive, one which is not 
about to express shuffling gratitude for the 
reluctant bestowal of basic rights. Thus black 
youths move from high schools to colleges in a 
demanding, not a submissive, mood. Because the 
core schools are more crowded, less well equipped, 
have more restricted curricula, and offer less 
learning opportunity than white schools, black 
college entrants are likely to be less well prepared 
than whites. Cultural distinctness, educational 
inadequacy, and a firm determination to have a 
college education as a matter of right are qualities 
which in combination are unappealing to college 
faculty and administrators. Since college faculty 
and administrators are human, we must assume 
that some of them will have been imbued with 
notions of racial inferiority and will be all the 
more lacking in sympathy to what they take as 
an arrogant demand from an inferior group. 

The \\ isconsin State Universities System, like 
many other systems of higher education in the 
Nation, is beset with problems of transition 
today. 

In this segment of the report we review the 
role of thi> individual Wisconsin State Universities 
in bringing Vi isconsin minorities, particularly 
black youths, to campus. Because the nine institu- 
tions have considerable experience in accepting, 
recruiting, orienting, and educating international 
students, many of whom are minorities, we 
review this related experience. Our thesis is that 
black students from Milwaukee's core must be 



17 



presumed to need — at least in tlie initial years of 
their introduction into the WSIJ System — 
special scholastic; and financial help and the 
minimal assurance that some hiack staff would 
provide, that they are not entering a system 
which is hostile in its monochromatic whiteness 
and rejects the black aspects of the American 
experience. These aspects of the WSU effort 
to serve Wisconsin's black population are also 
treated here. 

Recruitment by WSU institutions 

Professors and administrators on various WSU 
campuses take credit for recruitment of black 
students, and apportion credit to the Milwaukee 
Educational Opportunity Center. Although this 
study deals solely with WSU participation in 
recruitment, the MEOC figures prominently in 
any discussion of the trend of black students 
toward selected WSU's in the 1960's. Differences 
of opinion exist as to the motives leading some 
WSU campuses to seek to attract black students. 
The opinion is widespread that the schools decided 
at some point within the last decade that new 
Federal funds, or the retention of funding at old 
levels, would be contingent upon a demonstration 
of an integrated student body. According to this 
interpretation, black students were recruited in 
order to have token blacks to display and report 
as statistics. (B/3/5). Also current is the impres- 
sion that faculty and administrators, at some 
point in the sixties, realized the WSU's had an un- 
met responsibility to minority people in the State 
and set about to recruit minority students. 
(B/3/4). There is feeling that each of the cam- 
puses needs more black and other minority stu- 
dents and faculty, in large part to further the 
education of the predominantly white student 
body. (B/12/32). 

The September 1970 appointment of Edward 
M. Spicer, former head of MEOC and of the 
UWM Upward Bound program, as "minority 
speciaHst" for the WSU System marks the 
establishment in Madison of an office specifically 
concerned with minority enrollment and problems 
of minority students on the State University 
campuses. In announcing Spicer's appointment, 
Mr. McPhee said: "He will help plan special 
minority group student programs included in 
the Board's budget request to the 1971 legisla- 
ture." (WSU press release, Sept. 17, 1970.) 
This may be a long step toward programmatic 



concern for the minority student in lh<- Vi.SL 
System. 

President William L. Carter at Vt hiti-water 
associates the increase of black students with the 
inception of Federal and matching State projrramfc 
during the 1960's. Vt hitewaler applied for and 
received funds to support an Lpward liound 
program for Summer 1966. 'I'his attracted about 
90 black students and some Indians. About 15 or 
20 stayed on for the regular sch(Kjl year. The 
school applied again for 1967, received funding, 
and experienced another successful Lpward 
Bound program. In 1968 the third and last such 
program was, from the vantage point of the schfx<l. 
a disaster. Black Lpward Bound students and 
white students on campus clashed and outside 
int(;rvention was required to curb violent 
behavior. (C/4/11). 

The former chairman of the human rights 
committee at River Falls recalls making a trip 
to the MEOC office in Milwaukee early in 1967 
to be certain they had materials <m River Falls. 
This was followed bv a visitation from MEf)C. 
led by Richard L. Aukema, who is remembered 
as having attended River Falls. (B 13 35;. 
Subsequently five River Falls faculty visited 
North High School, the South Side, and North 
Side offices of MEOC, where they interviewed 
students. River Falls admission staff was en- 
couraged to visit the core high schools in Mil- 
waukee. (B 13 35). The administrative vice 
president at River Falls reports the school 
continues to work closely with MEOC. (B 2 3). 
Although black students in residence protest 
thev would never recommend so isolated and 
rural a school to their friends, the impression 
persists among faculty, and is made plausible 
bv the admission records, that black students 
are bringing their sisters and brothers to the 
school. (B/13/37). 

Faculty and administrators at Platteville also 
recall working through MEOC. Like River Falls, 
Platteville respondents report Richard Aukema 
as a former student — indeed, in this case, as a 
graduate. (A 8 29). It is his personal interest 
in the school, and also to the interest of Edward 
Spicer (now^ on the WSU staff in Madison I that 
early black enrollment growth is attributed. 
(A/8/29). Platteville basketball coach Richard 
W'adewitz, who had coached a black high school 
team in Milwaukee before moving to the college 
level, is also credited with attracting Milwaukee 
blacks to the Southwestern corner of the State. 



18 



(A/7/25). President Bjarne R. Ullsvik mentions 
Custer and Western Division as high schools 
in which Platteville has recruited black students. 
(A/A/1). 

Recently students from the Black Cultural 
Center at Oshkosh invited 110 black high school 
students from Milwaukee to spend 2 days on 
campus, and guided them through an orientation 
program. (D 1 2). One current view at Oshkosh 
is that black recruiting should focus on the out- 
lying Milwaukee schools rather than on the inner 
core, since any effort to provide a college education 
for students from the inner-city schools must be 
tied to a special program with special financial 
aids — the source of which is not now apparent. 
(D, ^6). 

Admission standards 

Harold Reals, vice president for student affairs 
at Platteville, outlined WSl' admission standards 
as follows: 

Upper three-fourths of class if graduates of 
accredited Wisconsin high schools. If out-of- 
State, upper two-fifths of class, or upper 
three-quarters witJi an ACT (American College 
Testing) score of 17 or higher.' 

AH a[)plicants must take the ACT for 
• placement and coimseling. 

Open admission for summer school, together 
with the provision that one can demonstrate 
eligibility to attend a Vt'SU by passing six 
credits of college level work, provides an 
alternative route to admission. 

WSL Board regulations also require that a 
student be recommended by his high school 
principal or counselor. In some cases the school 
may admit a student despite an adverse recom- 
mendation. Black students at Platteville expressed 
the opinion that some black applicants are 
refused because of an arrest record — which, it is 
argued, is easily acquired by a black youth from 
the Milwaukee core. In his discussion of ad- 
missions practices and policies. Reals argued 
that to the best of his knowledge no black student 
had been refused admission at Platteville because 
of an adverse recommendation from his high 
school or an arrest record. (A 8 29-29A). 

Talks with faculty, administrators, and students 
suggest that the WSLi's visited have fairly 



' Oii|.of-Slalc mlmtnNtnn rcf]iiircnicntH have "ilicc lw€n hroiiRhl into 
conformity wilh in-Slalc requirement!*. 



relaxed procedures for admitting minority stu- 
dents, are quite outgoing and sympathetic in 
making allowances for personal, social, and 
economic factors which might cause late or 
somewhat irregular application for admission 
and for flnancial aid. However, these somewhat 
casual attitudes — which constitute permissiveness 
when applied to admissions — persist following 
the point of admission. This has caused black 
students and interested faculty to charge that 
the academic needs of black students are ne- 
glected. If public policy dictates admission of 
students who will require extra academic help 
to survive, it likewise dictates that such help 
be provided. 

Retention and future enrollment 

Retention experience and projections of future 
enrollment of black students are important 
aspects of WSU education of minoritN students. 

In its report to the Commission on Civil 
Rights, Platteville listed .38 black Wisconsin 
residents, and 16 out-of-State black students 
enrolled. President Ullsvik's impromptu estimate 
was a total of about 60 black students in residence 
in 1970, a figure which he thought fairly constant 
for the previous 5 years. (A/1/1). The data sub- 
mitted by Platteville to the Department of 
Health. Kducation. and Welfare for 1970 indicate 
that the black enrollment is 1.28 percent of its 
total enrollment, and that the school has 12.08 
percent of the black students enrolled in the 
entire WSU System. (See table 1.7.) Vt hile we 
did not secure from President Ullsvik projections 
for the future, the context of discussion suggests 
his anticipation of gradually rising black enroll- 
ment. If the prognosis for black enrollment at 
Platteville is good, this contradicts the impressions 
staled by black students now in residence. They 
suggest that for each junior and senior who has 
survived at Platteville, 10 have left or been 
asked to leave. They see little incentive or like- 
lihood for stable or increasing black enrollment 
leading to taking degrees. (A/4/23). 

River Falls reported to the Commission the 
presence of 44 Wisconsin blacks, three out-of- 
State and 10 black students from abroad. Ad- 
ministrators and students concurred in estimating 
30 black students on campus when they talked to 
the State committee and Commission staff 
members. (B/2/2: B/8/21). By HEW reports, 
the school has the highest black enrollment 



19 



proporlionalc lo its total ('nrollmcnl, 1.31 pcrrcnt. 
It enrolls 10. f) I pcrfcnt of lli<! Idack BtiidcnlK in 
the WSU Syslein. Black Htiidi-ntH say (rnroiliiiciil 
is "drying np". They s|)eak of graduating "and 
leaving the place white and normal." (li/H/2^)). 
They helieve one hlaek student graduated in 
1966 or 1967, and none since that year. (B/8/2.')). 
On the other hand, a faculty member sympathetic 
to minority prohh^ms heii(;ve8 Kiver Falls has a 
higher than average retention rate for hiack 
students in the WSU System. (B/.S/4J. President 
George Field expresses eagerness to receive more 
black students. He can offer no projections for 
the future, but is wary of any expectations that 
enrollment of blacks can be radically increased 
in the near future. (B/ 10/27). 

Whitewater reports 96 Wisconsin black 
students on campus, and 26 from out-of-State. 
The school's HEW data suggest that 1.29 percent 
of the Whitewater enrollment is black, and that 
it enrolls nearly a quarter (24.60 percent) of the 
black students within the WSU System. The 
estimates which the Committee members received 
on campus accorded with the number of students 
reported to HEW. President Carter expresses 
the opinion that, in the face of declining enroll- 
ment, Whitewater will continue to increase 
the number and proportion of black students. 
(C/4/15). Dr. Carter does not think the retention 
rate is good at present. Among the 600 graduates 
from Whitewater in January 1971 were three 
black students, and the 1,000 graduates in June 
1971 are expected to include nine or 10 black 
students. (C/4/12). Another authoritative source 
estimates that 80 percent of the black students 
who go to Whitewater do not graduate. (C/3/8). 

Oshkosh reported 83 American black students 
(it did not distinguish Wisconsin and out-of-State 
residents) and 11 black students from abroad. 
The Oshkosh enrollment data reported to HEW 
reveals a black enrollment of 0.74 percent of the 
full-time students on campus, and 15.88 percent 
of the total black enrollment in the WSU System. 
The total of black students in residence today 
is substantially below the 120 which Vice Presi- 
dent Richard G. Netzel estimated enrolled at 
the time of the November 21, 1968 incident 
which resulted in expulsion of 94 black students. 
(D/2/5). We do not have authoritative opinions 
of faculty and administrators on the retention 
experience at Oshkosh or on projected black 
enrollment in the next few years. Black students 
say that only three blacks have graduated from 



Oshkosh in recent memory, and thih indicat' 
that something is radirallv wrong. (I) ') ]U/. 

Ki-rTuilnienl of WiMonhin minorit\ hlutU-nth 
and more Hpecilieally Milwaukee's blacks- t 
U.SU institutions has, tlien. been a rehult oi i 
an active talent search by HF VB and MFOC ' 
conducted with Federal supfK^rt, ad htx: initiati> « 
on a few of the W.SU campuses, and accidents oi 
geography. 

Treatment of international students 

Tables 1.1 and 1.2 show that the nine WSU 
schools currently enroll 445 international and 
543 Wisconsin minority students. International 
and out-of-State (188j combined exceed the 
Wisconsin minority enrollment, and international 
exceeds Wisconsin black enrollment by over 100. 

Discussions on four campuses indicate the 
WSU's take considerable pride in their attractive- 
ness to foreign students. This attraction is seen as 
a measure of the quality of th(; academic programs 
on campus, as an opportimitv for the school to 
make a contribution internationally — frequently 
to developing Nations and in support of that 
Nation's or United States policy — and as an 
opportunity to contribute to the education of 
American students on campus by exposing them 
to cultures different from their own. (A/1/1). 

Platteville has set up an Institute of Inter- 
national Studies to coordinate international 
programs on campus and to recruit international 
students. The 80 foreign students on campus 
at the time of the Commission visit came from 
25 countries. For the most part. Commission 
representatives were told, thev had come on 
their own. Many had had help from their govern- 
ments. Those in need and academically qualified 
could secure scholarship help of some kind on 
campus. Platteville's receptivity toward foreign 
students has received international notice, it 
is felt, and contributes to the flow of students 
from abroad. Some scholarship funds are admin- 
istered toward attracting students from countries 
underrepresented or not represented on campus 
and to achieve more balance. Taiwan and Hong 
Kong are chief sources of students. (A 14 39). 
Some Chinese students come to Platteville for 
orientation and go on to other schools for specialty- 
training. (A/14/41). 

The director of the Institute of International 
Studies at Platteville is concerned with the 
recruitment, orientation, performance, and wel- 



20 



fare of the international students on campus. 
The school tries to avoid students with academic 
deficiencies, but language is frequcnlly a problem 
and remedial work is offered. The director also 
sees it as his job to generate demand for inter- 
national students as s]>eakers and parti('i|>ants 
in programs in surrounding communities, thereby 
making the students a resource for the area. 
(A/14/40). Friends of Foreign Students is a 
community organization which arranges fainilv 
invilations for foreign students and generally 
altem])ts to ease their acculturation to the com- 
munity and that of the community to them. 
(A/14/40). 

.4t River Falls responsibility for international 
students on campus is one of a number of assign- 
ments for a member of the counseling and guid- 
ance staff. There is a program largelv concerned 
with integrating international students into the 
community. River Falls has a particidarly 
diflicult proWem resulting from the absence of 
public transportation, and host families attempt 
to meet incoming international students at the 
airport or other place of arrival in the Twin 
Cities area. Efforts to utilize international 
students in public programs are less vigorous 
than in the past. (B/.3/3). 

Comment from townspeople and faculty indi- 
cates that international students belonging to 
minority ethnic groups are regarded as "higher 
class" than American minority groups. The 
international students are perceived to mix more 
readily in (he local communities and to be 
disinclined to associate with American minority- 
group members. (B/17/45; D/l/l). 

Commission representatives visiting the cam- 
puses discerned no inclination whatsoever to 
regard the WSU experience with international 
students as relevant to dealing with the problems 
of black students from Wisconsin and out-of- 
State on campus and in town. 

Scholastic help and curriculum change 

The question we wish to explore is whether 
there must be more by way of program to ac- 
comoclate the campus and community to the 
black influx and the black students to college 
life than has been instituted thus far by the nine 
WSL's. Our response to the question is affirma- 
tive. And since the schools in the VtSl Syst<'ni 
do not have complete autonomy but look to the 
system office in Madison for leadership, funtls. 



and definition of basic policies, the administrative 
hierarchy and the regents of the system must 
contribute incentive, guidance, and resources to 
developing such programs — at least (hiring a 
transitional period. 

The State universities are experienced in 
acculturating international students who, in 
terms of numbers on the campuses, at least 
equaled nonwhite Wisconsin residents at the 
time of this study. Wisconsin blacks do not need 
acculturation, but the effort expended upon 
acculturating local communities and the student 
body and faculty to international students must 
be at least matched for Wisconsin's minorities. 

Beyond efforts to minimize social hindrances 
in the community and on campus, the WSU's 
must systematize and place on a firm program- 
matic basis their hitherto sporadic efforts at 
orientation, counseling, remedial work, tutor- 
ing, and curriculum change. As part and parcel 
of such an effort, black professionals must be 
recruited to participate in such programs, and 
sustained concern must be shown for retention 
of black students. The objective must be a 90 
percent black student retention rate. 

Students say that the Milwaukee Educational 
Opportunity Center, which is active in recruiting 
for college, does not offer much help on campus. 
(B/8/24). The implication is that MEOC might 
see the new students through a period of orienta- 
tion. MEOC does have mimeographed materials 
which forewarn the new college student of 
problems to be anticipated. Some observers on 
campus believe the increasing presence of upper- 
classmen among black students will contribute to 
the socialization of new black students and ease 
their initial sense of disorientation. (B/15/42). 
On the other hand, black students express 
resentment at the excessive reliance which they 
think the WSU administrations place upon self- 
help. They think that black student leaders get 
bogged down in efforts to help the group, end up 
neglecting their own academic work, and swell 
the nonretention statistics. (C/ 18/40). 



Orientation 

It is argued that a good deal of the alien 
quality of the new black student's experience 
would be removed were he to see a few black 
faces in the crowd of authorities who seem to be 
running things during new student orientation 



21 



week, niack assistant jlcans at Wliitewatcr and 
Oshkosli may [»erf<>rni lliis, among <)lli<;r functions. 
Oshkosh presented a "Pilot Program for 
Incominf^ Marginal Freglmieri" in llie last week 
of August and (irst week of Septeml)er 1970. 
Approximately .'iOO incoming freshmen whose 
high school percentile rank was between the 
25th and the .'JOlh jjercentiles and whose ACT 
score was below 17, or whosi; high school per- 
centile rank was below the 2.'>th percentile but 
whose ACT composite score was 17 or above 
were invited to participate and 55 did. 

Program students were housed on the tenth 
floor of Gruenhagen Hall, one side being 
reserved for men and the other for women, 
with visitation hours. Conditions were kept 
similar to those of the academic year, including 
quiet hours and relatively unstructured recrea- 
tional activities. Residence hall staff assisted 
the students in becoming acquainted with the 
campus and available facilities. 

The regular summer orientation activities 
were interspersed into the program schedule. 
These included an informational slide and tape 
presentation on available student services, cam- 
pus tours, diagnostic and placement testing, 
information on registration, and various rules 
and regulations. 

The program introduced students to "effi- 
cient textbook study and review techniques, 
listening and note-taking practice, and . . . taking 
exams." . . . "The students responded positively 
toward almost all aspects of the program and 
indicated strongly that they now had a better 
understanding of college class requirements." 
(Interim Report on the WSU-Oshkosh Pilot 
Program for Incoming Marginal Freshmen, Aug. 
24r-Sept. 4, 1970). 

The Oshkosh report does not give the racial 
distribution of the 300 eligibles or the 55 par- 
ticipants (the section of the report captioned 
"Student Sample" merely offers a breakdown by 
sex — 29 men and 26 women). It does, however, 
note that financial aid was available to students 
who qualified for it — presumably toward defraying 
the estimated student subsistence and materials 
cost of $71.50. Black students report, and an 
Oshkosh administrator confirms, that while blacks 
were invited to the program, none could afford 
to go. (D/9/11; D/2/4^5). Many black students 
fall into the eligible group for such a program. 



and a large proportion would probably participate 
if financial barrierh were removed. 

Were it possible to couple a program like that 
at Oshkrish lo [(reregihlration, under circum- 
stancc' pertnilting iixlividual attention to the 
needs of each student, the result could be ex- 
tremely beneficial to new black htiidentu and 
to the WSL's. .Assembly line mass regibtration, 
which is irritating and disadvantageous to all 
students, can be destructive to the survival 
prospects of new black students. The result of 
the process is likely to be a course schedule which 
is practicable at best for the modal student, but 
emphatically dysfunctional for the new entrant 
from Milwaukee's core. 

WSU administrators appear ready to disengage 
new black students from the lockstep of traditional 
and depersonalized registration procedures. I^ead - 
ership and funds now seem forthcoming from 
the WSU Madison office toward instituting a 
systemwide orientation and preregistration pro- 
gram with financial aid to participants. 

Counseling 

Black students express lack of confidence 
that there is any one person on campus to whom 
they can go with the certainty of receiving under- 
standing and sensitive help on a broad spectrum 
of problems. Orientation, catalogs, and rule 
books do not tell the black students all they 
need to know. They sense the need for someone 
available to help them understand and cope 
with "the system", dealing with such problems 
as a course schedule into which a student has 
been shunted but which he is convinced he 
cannot handle, or a computer which a student 
tliinks is spitting out F's when it should be 
reporting incompletes or a passing grade. (A/4/15; 
A/4/24). Students complain that they have never 
heard of counseling, that counseUng is too 
procedure- and rule-book -oriented, that it is just 
inadequate — not discriminatory, just not enough. 

No one used the term, but it is quite clear that 
black students have in mind, when they speak 
of "proper" counseling, a function which would 
include activities associated with an ombudsman. 
They want someone who will search out problems 
as well as Usten to those brought to him, someone 
who has a broad discretion to go to the source of 
a problem and do something about it. This would 
be a broad and ranging jurisdiction, impinging 
upon the jurisdictions of numerous other au- 



22 



thoritics, and requiring access to hiph ofTicialdom 
on campus, and perhaps in town and at the 
county and State level. 

Staff niembers with counseling responsibilities 
express the sense of being harried and fruslrateji. 
It would seetn that the ^X SU's can afford special 
counseling onlv by fitting the individual who is 
to provide that service into an existing budgeted 
position and saddling him with the functions 
associated with that position as well as with 
counseling tasks. Commission representatives 
received, at each campus visited, complaints of 
excessive spans of ill-assorted responsibilities. 
Special counseling for black students, insofar as 
it is available, is a hit-or-miss, part-time affair. 
Black staff, particidarlv. chafe at the need to 
treat a traditional job description as a distracting 
subterfuge which makes it possible to do a little 
wher<' inucli is rc(juired. Where black staff has 
been recruited to deal, in part at least, with the 
problems of black students on campus, the 
staff feels lost in a smothering hierarchv. These 
are experienced administrators and it is not the 
novelty of bureaucracy which frustrates them, 
but the sense of being isolated, or of reporting 
to the wrong official in the wrong chain of au- 
thority. (C/3/4; D/2/3-5; D/3/6; D/ 13/14). 

Remedial programs and tutoring 

A faculty member at River Falls who had been 
chairman of the human relations committee on 
campus thought it necessary to avoid over- 
solicitousness in dealing with black students. 
(B/ 13/38). And at Platteville a professor cau- 
tioned against the assumption that all black 
students r<"(juire remedial work — "they might 
object to being lumped together" in this manner 
(A/6/25). The dav previous to the Platteville 
discussion. Commission representatives had heard 
from black students the comment that a large 
part of the black problem on campus is in- 
adequate preparation. Yet in the same conversa- 
tion, black students complained of a white 
tendency to assume that if your are black you 
are inadequately prepared and perhaps in- 
adequate. (A/5/21). 

( )ver8olicitousne8s and a tendency to over- 
generalize the traits associated with a racial 
grouping need not attend a program for identi- 
fying the portion of an incoming group of stu- 
dents most likely to require help, an<l either 
making such help available on a volitional basis 



or making admission conditional upon par- 
ticipating in a remedial program. The Oshkosh 
program, so administered as not to exclude 
blacks, and administered as introductory to a 
freshman year which would include remedial work 
as indicated by testing, is worthy of adoption bv 
all of the WSU's. Tutoring is an appropriate 
adjunct to remedial course work, and persons who 
have had remedial work might be watched to 
determine their need for jwssible tutoring in other 
courses taken simultaneously or following remedial 
work. Remedial work and tutoring will not 
prevent attrition due to low motivation or 
inadequate preparation, merelv reduce it. Ex- 
perience with such programs should be the 
subject of study, as is proposed bv the faculty 
responsible for the pilot program at Oshkosh. 
Patricia Wilms at River Falls has written an 
M.A. thesis on remedial course work experience 
of students with ACT scores below 17, conclusions 
of which should be relevant to the design of 
remedial courses. (An ACT score of 17 is minimum 
requisite for admission to the WSU's — hence the 
tendency to define categories of students presumed 
to need help in terms of an ACT score below 17.) 

The need for r(;medial programs is recognized 
on the four campuses visited. There was, perhaps, 
a less clear recognition at Platteville than at the 
other three. President Roger Guiles at Oshkosh 
stressed the need to close the gap between in- 
coming freshmen from white suburban high 
schools, and those from the schools of the inner 
core, and seemed to recognize a responsibility 
for offering remedial work. (D/1/2). President 
Carter at Whitewater stressed remedial work 
and tutoring as major program objectives. 
(C/4/10). Staff with responsibility for remedial 
work at Whitewater say that 99 percent of the 
black students need ht^lp and much less than 
half are getting it. Some students cannot pass 
remedial courses. If they are regarded as promising 
enough to retain, they can be helped only by asso- 
ciating tutoring with remedial work. (C/14/33). 

River Falls has been offering remedial courses 
since at least 1967. In that vear letters were 
sent out to 200 students with ACT scores under 
17 apprising them of the availability of special 
courses. The human relations committee on 
campus undertook to counsel black students 
who seemed to need such work into remedial 
courses. (B 3 8; B/13/37). English 50 and 20 
and Chemistry 100 are the core of remedial 
course work. The Chemistry 100 course has the 



23 



unuHual (caUirc, of being paced to Buil th<; Htiident. 
Pasning llic coiirM' coiihIsIh of taking 10 t<'KtH. A 
student may lake one, two, or three quarters to 
complete the 10 tests and g<a credit for the 
course. About one-third of the Cliemistry 100 
students are minority students. (B/13/3.3). 

At the time of our visit, Whitewater was 
preparing to set up a counseling center and 
establishing a program of tutoring under the 
direction of W. (ieorge Pattern, a black acade- 
mician, wiio has bc(;n discharging the varied func- 
tions of an assistant dean and attempting, in 
addition, to play a number of helpful roles in 
relation to minority students on the cam{)us. 
(C/3/6). Another black academician, Assistant 
Dean Curtis Holt at Oshkosh, has stated the 
need succinctly: (1) more black faculty, (2) more 
support and remedial programs, (3) special 
courses to help minority students master com- 
munication skills, and (4) financial realism. 
(D/4/7). Pattern at Whitewater was, at the time 
of interview, seeking Federal funds to support 
the projected tutoring program. The WSU's 
can show some budgetary imagination and 
initiative, taking money out of travel and putting 
it into remedial work, but there are strict limits 
to the amount of effective programing which can 
be pieced together in this ad hoc manner. Here, 
again, leadership, commitment, and funding at a 
systemwide level is clearly necessary. (C/4/11). 

Curriculum change 

Discussions of curriculum change to take into 
account the needs of minority population groups 
newly emergent on campuses will cover various 
kinds of change. Remedial courses, where pre- 
viously regarded as unnecessary, represent a 
profound change in the orientation of the school 
administration and faculty to the student and 
the assumption of a significant new service 
function. In the specific context of the black 
student, there is the familiar and valid suggestion 
that when the black experience is relevant to 
course content, the readings, lectures, and 
discussions should refer to it. Literature, sociology, 
history, and the political science courses are 
obvious candidates for examination to determine 
whether accuracy, balance, and completeness 
require more or less detailed reference to the 
contribution and experience of black people. A 
third type of suggestion on curricidum, and one 
on which generalizations can be offered with 



less authority, ih that entire courses be devoi<-d 
to the black experien<'e. One can readiK imagine 
courses on HIack Literature in Ameri<;a, Klack 
History, the .Sociolog) of the HIack Communil 
IJIack Politics, and so on. 'I he merit of the cour 
would necessarily be judged on content, readin^ 
qualifications of the instructor, how it fith inio 
the relevant curriculum. The m(^t contentious 
suggestion is that a coherent body of work be 
made available to students, under a title such as 
'TJlack Studies", and that a majctr c>r a minor 
be permitted in this area. 

Oshkosh offers a minor in Afro-American 
studies, starting in spring semester 1971. (D 8 9: 
WSL Faculty News, December-January, 197 
71.) Whitewater has developed courses on Intro- 
duction to Afro-American Literature. So<:iology 
of Minorities, and The History of Black America, 
the continued offering of which is cast in doubt 
by staff reductions and b\ what some faculty 
regard as a lack of sympathy with such courses in 
administrative quarters. (C/25 l-2j. 

The WSL's which attract minority students 
have thus far shown little concern for their 
survival prospects. The tendency has been to 
assume the school has discharged its full re- 
sponsibility in admitting minority students and 
providing them access to higher education facili- 
ties. If the student cannot make it, that is his 
concern. Wisconsin's minority youth needs scho- 
lastic survival kits and systematic help in using 
them. Such programs can best be developed on 
the WSU campuses, with system leadership and 
budget aid, and with minority student par- 
ticipation. 

Financial aids 

The Wisconsin Higher Educational Aids Board. 
In the span of 5 school years. 1965-66 to 1969-70, 
total aid resources extended to ^ isconsin college 
students increased from $9.5 to $43.5 million, 
and the State of Wisconsin's share of this aid 
increased from $2.6 to $19.4 million. (Wisconsin 
Higher Educational Aids Board, Student Financial 
Aid Handbook, 1970-71, p. 7.) This represents 
not merely a fourfold increase in total aid. but 
an increase in Wisconsin's assumption of re- 
sponsibility from 27 percent of the aid ad- 
ministered in 1965-66 to 45 percent in 1969 70. 
One of the Higher Educational Aids Board's 
(HEAB) functions is to rationalize and coordinate 
the administration of financial aids in the State. 



24 



The HEAB is the chief Wisconsin contact with 
the Office of Education of the U.S. Department 
of Health. Education, and VI el fare in carrying 
out HEW's responsibilities under the National 
Defense Education Act and the Elementary and 
Secondary Education Act. 

The board seeks to enlarge the amount of 
financial aid available to Wisconsin students, 
in part by assuring that the State avails itself 
of Federal grant opportunities, and it seeks to 
rationalize the distribution of available funds. 
As a part of the effort to rationalize distribution, 
HEAB has played a catalytic role in introducing 
economically disadvantaged and minority youth 
to higher educational opportunities in Wisconsin. 
It performs this role through the Northside and 
Southside offices of the Milwaukee Educational 
Oj)portunity Center which counsels low-income 
and minority youths toward college. It has secured 
a planning grant under Title I, Section 105 of 
the Higher Education Facilities Act of 1963 to 
develop a transitional education program for 
Milwaukee's disadvantaged youth. 

HEAB has been influential in channeUng 
minority students from the Milwaukee core onto 
college campuses. It has developed a single 
financial aid form accepted by all public and 
private colleges in Wisconsin. These are dis- 
tributed to students in high schools which transmit 
them to IlEAB. The Higher llducational Aids 
Board checks each form for completion, residency, 
and program eligibility and then sends a copy 
to each school listed on the application by the 
student. (HEAB, Student Financial Aid Hand- 
book. 1970-71, p. 11.) Final discretion in drawing 
up a financial aid package ("funds are now being 
disbursed in financial aid 'packages', i.e., combina- 
tions of scholarships, grants, loans and employ- 
ment") and making an offer to the student lies 
at the campus level. Thus, for financial aid 
applications, as for talent search, HEAB serves 
as a conduit. It distributes information, elicits 
interest, collects applications, and in general 
puts the prospective student in touch with the 
college. 

The transitional education planning grant 
may be a prelude to an enlarged role for HEAB, 
seeking to assure that the underprivileged and 
minority youth it recruits for college campuses 
have transitional preparation to increase their 
retention [)rospects and the extra services they 
require available when they get there. Unless and 
until the HEAB or another appropriate agency 



(such as the Board of Regents of the WSU Sys- 
tem) asserts central leadership and guidance of the 
development of such services on the individual 
WSU's, the State will be in the position of 
recruiting minority students to attend WSU 
schools which are in no respect programmed to 
meet their special needs. Such central control 
should extend also to tailoring individual financial 
aid packages for students, and administering 
them. 

The CCR Wisconsin Slate Committee's ob- 
servations lead it to concur in an appraisal of 
financial aid programs for disadvantaged which 
was framed by Richard H. Johnston. Admin- 
istrator, Division of Student Support, HEAB, in 
November 1968. Although 3 years have elapsed, 
HEAB stands by this appraisal today; indeed, it 
is feared that reduced funding at the Federal 
level has worsened conditions. 

It is amazing, considering the current interest 
in aiding the disadvantaged, that there are 
relatively few State or Federal student financial 
aid programs specifically designed to aid this 
group of students. During the 1968-69 academic 
year, for example, only the Indian Scholarship 
program ($77,000) and the Teachers Scholarship 
program ($240,000) will provide specific State 
financial aid for disadvantaged students. The 
inflexibilities of both of these programs, 
however, undoubtedly inhibits their positive 
impact on disadvantaged students. The recent 
decisions of the U.S. Office of Education 
regarding the Educational Opportunity Grants 
program suggest that this Federal program 
also has not been meeting its primary objective 
of serving disadvantaged students. 

It might be argued that the financial aid 
structure with its commitment to universal 
educational opportunity and distribution of 
funds on the basis of need is by its very nature 
responsive to the needs of the disadvan- 
taged. Unfortunately, however, ample evidence 
abounds which leads to the conclusion that 
little of the available financial aid is reaching 
the disadvantaged. One phenomenon which 
has been noted is the tendency of many in- 
stitutions to provide "self-help" financial aid 
to high-risk students. The overemphasis on 
loans and employment seems to be an in- 
appropriate way to aid disadvantaged students. 
Students in this category who are required to 
work even a minimum number of hours will 



25 



find il (lifTirull l<> <lcvolc the amount of limtr 
to 8l inlying which is needed to overcome 
existing acad<-mic deficiencies. Disadvantaged 
students who are required to take on large 
debts, on the other hand, face the psychological 
fear of not being able to repay the loans. 
Finally, a disadvantaged student who tries 
and fails in his attempt to achieve in higher 
education is not likely to have the resources 
available to repay the debts he has incurred, 
and, in addition, the collection efforts which 
follow in the case of loan defaults arc likely 
to reenforce the negative self attitude resulting 
from such a failure. It is also likely that current 
financial need analysis techniques do not 
recognize the unique financial circumstances 
of most ghetto families. Even in the case of 
those families with relatively high income (both 
husband and wife working), poor money 
management, high credit costs and high con- 
sumer prices prevent ghetto families from 
contributing at the level expected by tradi- 
tional need analysis methods. Another im- 
portant point is that most financial aid pro- 
grams require that students be enrolled full- 
time in order to be eligible. This is inconsistent 



with recent innovations in institutional aca- 
demic programs which (irovirle redur-ed credit 
loads for students along with noncredil remcilial 
or enrichment courses. Many students taking' 
these spc<-ial courses find themselves inejigibl'- 
for financial aid because they lar-k full-timi- 
standing. Itn[>ortant ediic-alional op(»<>rtunilies 
are available to the disailvantagcd in viK-ational 
and technical training programs. In this case. 
however, the accreditation criterion of mosi 
financial aid programs prohibit their u.s<- b\ 
needy students. (Paper delivered bv Kicharrl 
H. Johnston to the Conference on Increasing 
Human Potential Through Educational Change. 
Wisconsin Inter-agency Conference on tin- 
Educationally Deprived. Nov. 21-2.3, 1968.) 

Financial aids on the ^ SL campus 

The 1970-71 Yearbook of the Wiscon.sin State 
Universities Svstem details the cost of attending 
a WSU and describes the financial aid programs 
under which students mav seek help, and the 
wav to appiv for such help. Tables 2.1 anil 2.2. 
and the descriptive matter which immediateK 
follows, are taken from the publication. 



Table 2.1 

State and Federal Financial Aids 



SCHOLARSHIPS AND GRANTS — Need not be repaid. Refund policies may apply if student withdraws. 



TYPE 

Wisconsin Honor 
Scholarship 



Wisconsin Leadership 
Grants 



U.S. Educational 
Opportunity Grants 



Nursing Scholarship 



State Veterans 
Educational Grants 

Contact: County 
Veterans' Service 
Officer 



VALUE/TERMS 

$100 to $800, dependent 
upon student's assessed 
need. 



Up to 67% of student's 
assessed need. 



$200 to $1,000, not to 
exceed 50% of student's 
assessed need. Must be 
matched by other awards. 

Up to $1,000 per year. 



Reimbursement, upon 
satisfactory completion of 
courses, of cost of fees 
and textbooks for part-time 
study. Application must be 
made prior to completion 
of any course. 



ELIGIBILITY 

Highest ranking Wisconsin 
high school graduates from 
top 10% of their class as 
selected by the high school. 

Wisconsin residents "who 
during their high school or 
college courses were good 
students, are in financial need 
and possess qualifications for 
leadership." 

U.S. citizens or residents of 
Trust Territories who are 
defined under Federal regula- 
tions as exceptionally needy 
students. 

U.S. citizens or residents of 
Trust Territories already ac- 
cepted into a school of nursing, 
who show financial need and 
professional promise. 

Veterans who qualify as 
Wisconsin residents and enroll 
at an accredited institution 
located in the State for part- 
time or correspondence study. 
Benefits extend to unre- 
married widows and children 
of qualified deceased veterans. 



DURATION 

For freshman year only. 



One year. Students may 
reapply annually. 



Program continues during 
term of enrollment based 
on annual analysis of need. 
(Duration, 8 semesters) 

One year. Students may 
reapply annually. 



For lifetime of qualified 
veterans. 



(Continued next page) 



26 



Table 2.1 (continued) 



TYPE 

National Defense 
Student Loans 



LOANS — Repayable with interest as noted. 



VALUE/TERMS 

Up to $1,000 for under- 
graduates; up to $2,500 
for graduate students. 
Interest-free while student 
is enrolled on at least a 
half-time basis. 3% interest 
computed annually begin- 
ning 9 months after 
student graduates or 
leaves school; up to 10 
years for repayment. 
(Special cancellation features 
for teachers and nurses.) 



ELIGIBILITY 

Finanicially needy students 
who are U.S. citizens or 
residents of Trust Territories. 



DURATION 

One year. Students may 
reapply annually. 



Wisconsin State Loans 



Guaranteed Loan 
Program (Available from 
private lending institu- 
tions) 

For information; Wis. 
Higher Education Aid 
Boards, 115 W. Wilson 
St., Madison, 53702. 



State Veterans Loan 

Contact; County 
Veterans' Service Officer. 



Up to $1,000 for under- 
graduates; $1,500 for 
graduate students. 
Interest-free until 9 
months after graduation or 
termination of university 
attendance; thereafter 7% 
interest computed an- 
nually. Repayment period 
of up to 10 years. 

Up to $1,000 per academic 
year; $250 per summer 
session. 

Interest-free until after 
graduation or student 
leaves school. Thereafter 
7% interest during repay- 
ment period of up to 10 
years. 

No Federal interest 
subsidy. 7% interest from 
inception with up to 10 
years for repayment. 

Up to $2,000, repayable 
at 3% per annum. 



Residents of Wisconsin in 
good standing with the institu- 
tion who show financial need. 



One year. Students may 
reapply annually to a 
maximum limit. 



No set limit. 



For students from families 
with annual adjusted gross 
income under $15,000. 



For students from families with 
annual adjusted gross income 
over $15,000. 



Veterans who are Wisconsin 
residents and show financial 
need. Benefits extend to 
unremarried widows and 
children of qualified deceased 
veterans. 



Non-renewable. 



OTHER AID PROGRAMS 



TYPE 

U.S. Work-Study 
Program 



Social Security 

Contact; U.S. Social 
Security Administration 

Graduate Assistantships 



Federal-State Funds for 
Vocational Rehabilitation 



VALUE/TERMS 

Compensation on hourly 
wage basis determined by 
the institution. 



ELIGIBILITY 

U.S. citizens or residents of 
Trust Territories in good 
standing with their institution 
who show financial need. 



Varied amounts up to $160 
per month. 



Students up to age 22 whose 
parents are retired or 
deceased. 



DURATION 

Allows for an average of 
15 hours per week while 
classes are in session and 
up to 40 hours per week 
during vacation periods. 

While enrolled in full-time 
educational program. 



Non-teaching assistantships are available throughout the State Universities System and 
are directed by the individual university. 



Varies. 



For handicapped U.S. citizens 
who qualify. Contact nearest 
State Office of Vocational 
Rehabilitation Division 



For term of undergraduate 
study terminating with 
granting of baccalaureate 
degree. 



Source: WSU System Yearbook. 1970-71. 



27 



Table 2.2 
Wisconsin Siai<- I iiiversities System Fee Chart (Under^craduale), Academic Year 1970-71 



University 


UndcrKraduaU! tuition and fees > 


WSUroom 
and meals 


ToUl W8U ehwgH 




Wisconsin resident 


Nonresident 


Wlscomln resident 


NooratUlcnt 


Eau Claire 


$430 

447 

406' 

440 

429 

421 

439 

436' 

424 

433 

396' 

385 

440 


$1,360 
1,377 
1,336' 
1,370 
1,359 
1,351 
1,369 
1,366' 
1,354 
1,363 
1,326' 
1,315 
1,370 


$880 
880 
925 
930 
870 
900 
900 
888 
880 


$1,310 

1,327 

1,331' 

1,370 

1,299 

1,321 

J. 339 

1,32P 

1,301 


$2,240 
2,257 
2,26P 
2,300 


La Crosse. 

Oshkosh _ 

Platteville . 


River Falls 

Stevens Point 

Stout 

Superior 

Whitewater . 


2,229 
2,251 
2.269 
2,25M 
•7 23 1 


Barron County 


433 I . 363 


Fond flu Lac 

Medford 

Richland _. -. _ - 




396' l.:{26' 
385 1.315 
440 1,370 




i 



^ Figures include basic tuition fee of $320 for Wisconsin residents and §1,2.50 for nonresidents at all universities, plu- 
university service fees which vary. For graduate school, \\ i.sconsin residents add $58 per year and noriresidents add S3li' 
to figures given in chart. 

' Does not include fees for textbooks. 

< No facilities. 

Note: Students may elect to pay fees and room and board costs under a new optional installment payment plan. 
Information is available from the Director of Admissions at each university. 

Source: WSU System Yearbook, 1970-71. 



Financial Aid Information 

Most of the various financial aid programs 
available to students who intend to study at a 
State university are administered through the 
university and are covered by a single standard 
application form obtainable from the high school 
counselor or principal or from the university 
financial aid officer. 

The student financial aids office at each 
university provides assistance in obtaining these 
forms of aid when a student and his family do not 
have sufficient funds to cover all of his educa- 
tional expenses. The amoimt a student and his 
family can be expected to pay is computed from 
information supplied by the family on a standard 
form which is analyzed by a national organization. 
The university then helps the student to obtain 
the additional amount needed to cover his 
educational costs for the year. 

Such financial help is provided in the form of 
(1) scholarships and grants which need not be 



repaid, (2) long-term loans, and (3) employment 
which enables student to earn money while 
attending the university. Usually the student is 
offered a "package" consisting of a combination 
of these forms of help. 

For example, the cost of attending a State 
university in the 1970-71 academic year for a 
Wisconsin student living in a university residence 
hall is approximately $1,700 for fees, books, 
room, meals, and personal expenses. If analysis 
of the family financial statement indicates that 
the family can pay $600, the financial aid director 
can set up a plan for the additional $1,100 needed 
with a grant of $300, a loan of -SSOO. and a job 
enabling the student to earn $300 during the 
school year. 

How To Apply 

High school seniors who will be college freshmen 
may obtain and submit the proper forms through 
their high school guidance counselor or principal. 



28 



Uppcrclassmen should apply directly to the 
finanrial aid officer at the university. For other 
special forms of aid such as social security, 
veterans benefits, guaranteed loans, and voca- 
tional rehabilitation funds, application must 
be made directly to the proper State or Federal 
agency. 

Timetable 

Applications for scholarships and grants ad- 
ministered through the university must be 
submitted bv March 1. The financial aids offices 
at the universities then determine the aid 
"package" each student will be offered and send 
this information to the students between April 
15 and May 15. Students have until May 31, 
or 2 weeks after they receive the aid offer, to 
advise the university whether tlx'v wish to accept 
all or part of the "package" offered. 

Students who appiv for financial aid after the 
March 1 (leadline normally are not eligible for 
regular scholarships and grants, but may receive 
financial aid in the form of loans and employment. 

Ednuind Hayes, Director of Financial Aids 
at River Falls, briefed Commission representatives 
on the aid picture from the local WSU perspective. 
He administers three principal sources of Federal 
funds, and three sources of State funds. The 
Federal programs include Educational Oppor- 
tunity Grants (EOG), National Uefense Stuilent 
Loans (NDSL), and College Work Study (CWS). 
State funds are channeled into Wisconsin legisla- 
tive grants, the Wisconsin Student Loan program, 
and college employment. .'Vs he sees it, HEAB 
processes State student loans, but Wisconsin 
legislative grants and Federal funds are ad- 
ministered through the Board of Regents. Prior 
to 1969 70, he reports, individual WSU's sought 
Federal funds separately. Beginning with that 
school year responsibility was consolidated, and 
it became possible for the Board of Regents to 
transfer funds from one campus to another to 
meet changing needs. For example, one campus 
might have a surfeit of EO(i funds allocated 
and, through the board, exchange some of this 
for work study or loan money in time of need. 
(B/5/T2). 

Total funds available at WSU-River Falls for 
1970-71 for grants and loans amounted to 
$1,541,000: 

$330,000 EOG. 
191,000 NDSL. 



220,000 CWS. 

150,000 Wisconsin legislative grant. 

650,000 State loans. 

The three Federal programs — EOG, NDSL, and 
CWS — amounted to less than one-half, but a 
substantial 48 percent of River Falls' aid budget. 
Perhaps more significantly, from the viewpoint 
of the economically disadvantaged student. Fed- 
eral and State loan funds comprise 55 percent 
of the total financial aiil available to River Falls 
students. (B/5/12). 

A high proportion of black students attending 
WSU's receives financial aid, administered in 
packages which include grants and loans. About 
50 percent of the WSU-Platteville students 
receive such aid — some 3,075 in 1969 70 if 
student employment by the school is included — 
and all but two black students in attendance 
received aid in 1969-70. Financial aid officials 
at Platteville also estimate that black students 
receive higher levels of financial aid than do 
whites. (A 10 33). The report at River Falls 
was that 30 black students were receiving 
financial aid in 1970 71. (B/5/M). Forty-seven 
l)lack students were reported enrolled at that 
time. (HEW/OCR). Whitewater officials admin- 
istered financial aids to some 3,500 students or 
about 42 percent of the total enrollment. 
(C/15/34). 

Interviews with local WSU financial aids 
officers substantially reiterate<l the process and 
formula for financial aids described in the WSU 
Yearbook. Some officials, and a great many of 
the black students, discussed problems which 
they had found in the administration of such 
aids. The Yearbook advises that applications for 
grants and scholarships administered through 
the individual WSU's must be submitted by 
March 1. Talks with WSU officials on four 
campuses indicate that February 15 is the 
standard submission date for any applications 
which must be routed through HEAB, and it 
may be that the schools prefer to receive applica- 
tions by that date also. Whichever the date, 
however, black students newly entering a WSU, 
do not tend to get their financial aid applications 
in that early in the year. Freshmen black students 
typically are late applicants sonu-times coming 
in September with application in hand. (A/ 10 34). 

WSU officials appear to have been willing to 
stretch the rules and accommodate late a[)[)lica- 
tions. Commission representatives have no reason 



29 



lo l)<;li(^v<- l)lack hliidrnlH have \)i:i-u denicrj 
opportunity lo attend a WSli solely heeausc of 
lat<^ a()plicati(»n for needed finanrial helfi. Hut 
tlie l''el)niary-.Marcli application deadJineB are 
regarded unrealistic by black stueents. We 
assum<- that it takes a good deal of improvisation 
by aid oHicials to respond to timely a()pli('ation8 
slating meritorious cases for aid while somehow 
reserving funds for a block of late applicants. 

Scholarship help is contingent upon factors in 
addition to financial need, and is in short supply. 
Wisconsin Legislative Grants are administered 
by the WSU Board to require that applicants 
be in the upper half of their class. Educational 
Opportunity grants require that the applicant 
demonstrate that his parents' income falls below 
a certain range. For a number of reasons, a 
substantial amount of the aggregate financial 
aid administered will take the form of Federal 
and State loans. The individual student receives 
an aid package which is calculated to meet his 
need, and that package will include loan as well 
as grant money. Administrators and students 
complain at the practice of recruiting minority 
students, encouraging them to overcome social, 
economic, and academic obstacles and embark 
upon an academic journey which is inherently 
risky, and then virtually trap them into financing 
a considerable part of the cost through loans. 
The successful student may pile up a financial 
obligation which will depress his life style for 
years after graduation; the unsuccessful student 
drops out, or is dropped, and keeps a substantial 
debt as memento of the experience. The need 
to finance the enterprise through an aid package 
including a large segment of borrowing deters 
minority students from enrolling. (D/4/6). 

Administrators and black students voice con- 
cern about the reality of the formula for calculat- 
ing needed aid when applied to minority students. 
The budget for 1970-71, for a male student, is 
calculated at $1,700 for tuition, room, board, 
and incidentals. Under the standard formula, 
the student is presumed capable of saving $400 
from summer earnings, making for a net financial 
need of $1,300. (C/15/34). Some administrators 
have concluded that students from low-income 
families are expected to contribute to the family 
larder and cannot save money for college during 
the summer. The family may be a financial 
drain upon the student during the academic year. 
Family or personal emergencies may create a 
situation in which the student must have ad hoc 



financial help or withdraw from crollege to deal 
with the problem. (A/IO/34; B/6/16;C/ 1.5/34: 
U/5/7;. 

Somie black students feel the financial aid i- 
doled out to them, and that they are expected 
to be grateful for small favors. fD/9/10^ Thi- 
is not an unusual observation from recipieni- 
of financial aid programs. More im|Hjrtant i 
the confusion whir'h black studenth expre-!ft a I 
being assured of a stated amount of aid, in thi- 
form of a combination of grant and loan, bui 
then arrivt- on campus to discover that the\ are 
expected to have aildilional resources adequate 
to [)ermit them to make a depfjsit at the time of 
signing a residence hall contract and for other 
expenses. They see elements of flimflam involved 
in securing money from various sources and 
juggling their personal financial accounts in order 
to observe relatively small but multitudinou- 
deposit and fee requirements which they had 
assumed to be directiv paid or waived b\ 
the WSU. (B/8/20j. The academic administrator 
may have this '^ ' ' "i, among others, in mind 
in suggesting th: students have a money- 

management problem. (A/10/34j. Black veteran- 
complain that every time their Government 
check is late thev must apply for a waiver of 
late fee for tuition. Since the ViSL knows that 
the VA tends to be tardy in getting tiie check? 
out, whv can't the school just forget about, 
or grant a general waiver on late fees for tuition 
payment by veterans, they ask. (B/8/24). Par- 
ticularlv galling is the tendency of academic 
administrators to use deposits, late fees, and 
comparable funds as convenient techniques for 
disciplining students to desired behavior, and 
to apply such checking devices in ways which 
extract, in the form of deposit or penalty, funds 
granted or loaned toward the ostensible end of 
meeting the student's financial need. 

Probably a good deal of apprehension and 
developing resentment which black students 
experience in approaching the financial aids 
office would be lifted were they to see at least 
one black staff member. Whitewater has employed 
a black student in the financial aid office and the 
opinion there is that this has been helpful for 
all concerned. 

Minority staffing and the minority student 

Generic staffing problems. A number of non- 
racial factors contribute to a stagnant staffing 



30 



picture for the WSU's. Forecasts of reduced 
enrollment, changing degree requirements which 
can lessen need for slaff in some departments 
without enlarging need in others, and a state- 
wide austeril\ hudgeting mandate which trans- 
lates into a hiring moratorium are among these 
factors. In a buyer's market, the WSU System 
has approved more stringent qualifications for 
professorial positions: 

The new minimum requirements specify a 
doctoral degree or ecpiivalcnt and 10 years 
of fidl-time teaching in higher education for a 
full professorship, a doctoral degree or equiv- 
alent and at least 5 years of teaching or 
other appropriate experience for an associate 
professorship, and a master's degree or equiv- 
alent plus one full year of graduate work in a 
degree program for the rank of assistant 
professor. 

Exceptions to the minimum requirements 
may be made by the Board of Regents for 
faculty in such areas as the performing arts, 
at the request of the university president, 
wherever exceptional experience or special 
credentials comprise the best preparations for 
instruction in the assigned discipline. 

The proportions of faculty in each rank at 
each universitv were established as 10 to 25 
percent, full professors; 25 to 40 percent, 
associate professors; 25 to 40 percent, assistant 
j)rofessors; and 20 to 40 percent, instructors. 

{ff^SV Faculty Neivs, vol. 2, no. 3, December- 
January 1970-71.) 

Tenure for Vt'SU faculty is defined by statute. 
(Wis. Stat., 1969, ch. 37.,'il.) After receiving 
an academic appointment for a sixth consecutive 
year, a facultv member is by statute deemed to 
have emplovmi-ut which is "permanent, during 
effciency and good behavior". That is, he has a 
tenured position. Schools conforming to American 
Association of University Professors (AAUP) 
rules give an individual notice by the end of 
June that the coming year will be a terminal 
year's appointment. This tenure rule and AAUP 
rules translate into a situation best understood 
bv use of example. Candidate ,\' receives an 
initial appointment at a ViSU institution (his 
first year of teaching experience anywhere) for 
September 1975. If he is not to secure tenure 
automatically by operation of the statute, his 
last year of teaching must be his fifth year at the 
institution, 1979-80. If the .\AUP rule is observed. 



it will be necessary that he be given notice by 
June 1979 that the impending vear is a terminal 
year appointrnetit. In order that he be given timelv 
notice, it will be necessary for the academic 
department to review the case on its merits and 
in n-lation to academic needs about December 
1978, thence processing its recommendation 
through tiers of administration. 

The ^SU tenure rule may be regarded as 
affording great protection and convenience to 
faculty. One of its chief conveniences may be the 
absence of a formal process of tenure review. But 
it is thought by many persons that the practical 
need to make a decision on a person in his fourth 
vear leads to conservatism in stafling — a lendfn<-\ 
to let go in their fifth year any persons who 
seem to have boat-rocking qualities. Thus, 
there is a widespread belief that (|iialities of 
timidity and conservatism lead to tenure and 
reenforcement of a timid and conservative faculty; 
a reformist zeal and commitinenl to social change 
leads to a job at another institution. 

The new rule requiring the doctorate for 
promotion to associate or full professor would, 
if stringently enforced, lead departments to avoid 
granting tenure to those who lack the degree. 
Thus the rule on the doctorate and the statutory 
provision on tenure would combine to increase 
the hurdles to WSU employment. At this point 
in history, increased hurdles correlate directly 
with lower opportunity for blacks. One black 
student suggests the tenure rule results in a 
one-third turnover every 2 years, "and those 
who have tenure are no good." (A/4/23). The 
Association of WSU F'acultv, which is the group 
representing tenured faculty in the system, does 
not seem to reciprocate this ill feeling. The 
AWSUF representatives with whom we spoke 
did not see the presence of black students in 
increasing numbers as a threat to the senior 
facultv in terms of imposing extra work, altering 
demands upon faculty, and so on. 

Charges have been made that the administra- 
tion of at least one WSU institution — Whitewater, 
which, incidentally, has been under .^AUP 
censure since 1968 {AAUP Bulletins. Spring 1968, 
Spring 1971) because of an incident which 
antedates the appointment of its incumbent 
president — engages in a variety of practices, 
the cumulative result of which is an academic 
atmosphere which is authoritarian and repressive, 
at least for a substantial segment of the facultv. 
Thus, it is said, curriculum changes are introduced 



31 



with tin- jiur[)oHc of retaliating agairiKl depart- 
ments which arc out of favor with administration, 
department eliairnieri are siitnmarily (ired heeailHC 
they stand u|) for wliat they l»elieve to he de- 
partmental and faculty rights, and faculty 
memhers are summarily suspended because of 
assertion of causes unj>oj)ular to the administra- 
tion. (See, e.g., Milwaukee Sentinel, Feb. 15, 1971, 
pt. 1, p. 10; Milwaukee Journal, Feb. 28, 1971, 
pt. 1, p. 1.) A fai-ulty review panel found four 
faculty members so dismissed innocent of mis- 
conduct, and reiterated that finding after Presi- 
dent Carter complained that its finjiings of fact 
were "defective". (Milwaukee Journal, June 17, 
1971, p. 30). 

FeeUngs on the Whitewater campus are high. 
That the Commission has not received equally 
strong complaints from other WSU campuses 
does not mean the Whitewater complaint is 
miique. But we have not sought such complaints, 
and in receiving them have wanted to know their 
relevance to a study of the problems of black 
students at W^SU's. Faculty members who are 
informed, involved, and who feel strongly about 
the tone of administration at Whitewater allege 
that the behavior which is being punished by the 
administration is behavior associated with mihtant 
support of black causes and effort to accommodate 
the curriculum, facilities, and mores of WSU- 
Whitewater to the needs of black students. 
We cannot pass upon the merits of this assertion. 
But it is our opinion that, intensely as some 
faculty may believe that their issue with the 
president of Whitewater is a black issue, the black 
students at Whitewater are inclined not to be 
drawn in. This perception also applies to black 
involvement — or rather noninvolvement — in rad- 
ical white student causes on all of the WSU 
campuses visited. 

Whatever the merits of allegations of repression 
at WSU-Whitewater, we beheve that the quaU- 
ties which make for freedom of pursuit of truth 
in a university also associate positively with 
openness and receptivity toward people who 
differ with or are different from the dominant 
white ethnic on campus. 

Black faculty 

If the proportion of black faculty at a college 
is infinitesimal, and if facidty and administrative 
interest in recruiting black faculty is absent, 
sporadic, or curbed by institutional constraints 



such as budget limitations or hirifig rulei-,, the 
low level of black employment may he taken 
as firimn fiirif evidence of discrimination. It in 
discrimination by lack of effort, covert rather than 
overt. .Such a pattern warrants the Commi»sion 
on Civil Rights' investigation of emplo\menl 
practices f/i'r «?, in accordance with more than a 
decade of history of CCK inquiry and recom- 
mendations on employment. In this report our 
cmjihasis is on black student problems in the 
WSU community and staffing is of instrumental 
concern: if a practice of overt or covert dis- 
crimination in employment were documented, 
the institution could hardly be considered recep- 
tive to minority group enrollment. If, in the 
absence of overt discriminatory hiring practices, 
the minority faculty ratio is extremely low, 
minoritv students are deprived of the numerous 
benefits which would flow from having on the 
faculty a reasonable number of persons with 
whom they could identify socially and culturallv. 

Aside from overt and covert discrimination, 
there are practices which are not intrinsically 
race-related, but conducive to "institutional rac- 
ism". In a society in which undeniably there 
are indentifiable racial groupings which have 
been excluded from the mainstream by policy 
and practice, any hurdle to accomphshment is 
magnified for those who have been excluded and 
any arbitrary or nonessential bar to advance- 
ment will operate differentially to screen out 
proportionately more minority group members 
than whites and to make the obstacle course 
relatively more difficult for the surviving minority 
group members than it is for the whites. Thus, 
tenure rules which include an "up-or-out" 
provision and mandate a Ph.D., requirement 
that non-Ph.D.'s continue to take course work 
in a doctoral program as condition of employment, 
seniority practices whereby reductions in force 
eUminate the most junior nontenm-ed staff first, 
a preference against hiring part-time instructional 
personnel, and other practices and rules which 
are generally accepted, even hallowed, in aca- 
deme, may, in the context of the American soci- 
ety, add up to "institutional racism". Measured 
by motive or intent, the pejorative "racism" 
may not seem fair in given contexts, but measured 
by effect it may be factually descriptive. 

We assume that patterns of institutional racism 
connote a failure on the part of an institution 
to discharge its legal and moral responsibihties 
in the light of contemporary social poUcy at the 



32 



Table 2.3 
WSIJ Minority Faculty Employment 





Black 


Percent of 

systemwlde black 

faculty employed 

by local 

wsn 


other minority 


Percent of 

systemwlde other 

minority 

employed by 

WSU 




N 


Percent of local 
WSU faculty 


N 


Percent of local 
WSU faculty 


Plaltpville 

Whitewater. . 
Oshkosh ._• 


3 
3 
4 
1 



1 

1 
3 


1.0 

.6 
.9 
.4 


.2 


.3 
.8 


18.7 

18.7 

25.0 

6.2 



6.2 



6.2 

18.7 




i 

11 

5 
2 
11 
2 
4 
9 



1.3 
2.7 
2.2 
.8 
2.5 
1.2 
1.3 
2.4 



13.7 

21.6 
9.8 
3.9 

21.6 
3 9 


River Falls 


Stout State .. . . . 


Stevens Point 


Superior ^^.- 


La Crosse 

Eau Claire.. 


7.8 
17.6 




16 




99.7' 


51 




99 9' 











» Do not add to 100 due to rounding. 
Source: CCR WIS. SAC WSU survey. 



State and national level. We also assume that 
minority group members are denied equal access 
to State-supported facilities when, as students, 
they attend schools characterized by institutional 
racist practices. 

The proportion of black faculty on the nine 
WSU campuses is appallingly low. We conclude 
that recruitment efforts by the various institu- 
tions have been sufficiently passive, desultory, 
or curbed by institutional constraints, and have 
sufficiently lacked central stimulus from the 
system administrators in Madison as to warrant 
the charges of institutional racism and denial 
of equal access to public educational facilities 
against the WSU System. 

The VI isconsin SAC survey collected in- 
formation on a population of 3,172 faculty 
and administrators on the nine WSU campuses. 
Inadvertently, the categories under which the 
WSU's were asked to report faculty omitted 
"instructor" and this probably accounts for 
the major part of the discrepancy between the 
3,172 figure and the 4,422 faculty members 
reported by the WSU System office as employed 
on the nine principal campuses and four branch 
campuses in 1970 71. (WSU Faculty News, 
December-January 1970-71.) The analysis which 
follows is based upon the Commission survey 
and rests upon the assumption that gross as the 



discrepancy (1,250) between the WSU total and 
the CCR figure may be, it does not alter the 
black ratio data in a manner unfavorable to the 
WSU System. Indeed, unless the WSU's have a 
startling number of black instructors — and visits 
on four campuses discount this — the use of the 
lower faculty total probably inflates the black 
ratio. In the one instance in which a WSU 
reported black administrators but did not in- 
clude them as faculty, we report them as faculty. 
(Oshkosh). 

Sixteen black faculty were employed on the 
nine WSU campuses in 1970-71. Stout and 
Superior reported no black faculty and the 
remaining seven schools reported from one to 
four black faculty each. The story on other 
minority groups is a bit more bright, with a 
total of 51 distributed among the nine campuses. 
Only one campus, Platteville, reported no other 
minority faculty; the number per campus ranges 
from two to 11. The highest percentage of black 
faculty on any one campus is 1.0 percent at 
Platteville; the highest percentage of other 
minority is found at Oshkosh, 2.7 percent. 

.\s table 2.3 shows, four schools account 
for more than three-quarters of the total WSU 
System black faculty employment. They are 
Oshkosh, which employs a quarter of the total, 
Platteville, Whitewater, and Eau Claire, which 



33 



acrount for 18.7 percent each. Table 1.7 
earlier showed thai Whitewater, Oshkosh, and 
Platteville are the three top-ranking schools in 
percentage of total WSU System black enroll- 
ment. And Whitewater and Platteville rank 
second and third, respectively, in percentage 
of their total enrollment which is black; Oshkosh 
ranks fifth. River Falls, which ranks highest of 
all the WSU's on this scale, occupies the modal 
position on proportion of its black faculty and is 
among the lowest five of the schools in share of 
total black faculty. We do not have enough 
data to permit informed conjecture; upon the 
significance of Eau Claire's standing on black 
faculty employment. 

Rankings and comparisons among the WSU 
institutions involves the use of a low standard 
of black enrollment or employment. Using the 
total employment figure of 3,172 faculty and 
administrators reported to the Commission, 
black faculty and administrators comprise one- 
half of 1 percent; using the WSU Faculty News 
total of 4,422, the ratio is reduced to one in 



every 300 rather than one in everv 2fK). The 
employ rru'iil figure for other rriinoritieh is only 
less bad than that for blacks: 1.0 percent of the 
total repf)rtcd to the (Commission or ).l pt-rccrit 
of the WSL figure. 

There seems concerted expressed opinion thai 
the WSU System needs more black faculty. 
The need is stated not merely in term>- of en- 
larging the black faculty ratio at those institutions 
which are receiving increasing numbers of students 
from the Milwaukee core; some stress that 
positive benefit will accrue to the entire system 
from reaching out to secure a facultv which is 
more representative of the national and statewide 
population than now is the case. How to do 
this, and more particularly, how to do this 
without so altering existing staffing rules so as to 
weaken the quality of the faculty, will be the 
topic of debate. The black student, given his 
knowledge of American society, is inclined to 
look at the facts as evidence of institutional 
purpose, and at the debate as a cover screen for 
pursuing purposeful discrimination. 



34 



I 



PART 3. BLACK COHESION AND 
INTEGRATION AT 
WISCONSIN STATE 
UNIVERSITIES 



If not iiiipossibl)'. it would be highly artificial 
to roinparlmentalize a discussion of black prob- 
lems on the basis of a campus and town distinc- 
tion. Yet it is convenient to group a number of 
problem areas which seem to have major roots 
on campus, and another set which are at least 
equally well rooted in town, or are a predominant 
problem which black students experience in town. 
This is the distinction between parts 4 and 5 
of this report. In part l the discussion of problems 
on campus will frequently reach to their town 
as[)ects: in part 5 the discussion of problems in 
town will, in the case of police, for example, 
begin with a review of the security arrangements 
on campus. 

Separatism at the WSU's 

As black students began to reach the WSU's 
in the early sixties, they quickly sensed that 
campus and communilv attitudes required that 
they hang together. In the early days of black 
students on campus, the presence of merely one 
or two sufficed to evoke episodic expressions of 
racism. President Ullsvik at Platteville recalls 
in 1962 or 196.3 seeing a dummy labeled "jig" 
suspended in a tree, and getting it down before 
very many people had the opportunity to view 
it. (A/A/1). Black students continue to sense 
racial animosity on campus. These problems, a 
rising black enrollment which made possible 
the quest for group identity on campus and 
probably assured the requisite leadership, and 
national events associated with the rise of the 
l>la(k power movement seem to be the incubus for 
lilai'k separatist efforts on campus. 

I'he cumulative experience of race violence 



during the 1960's, followed hard by mounting 
campus unrest, undoubtedly intensified the ap- 
prehension and resentment with which the WSU 
communities watched the new black arrivals. 
Townspeople, faculty, and students had watched 
television newsclips of rioting in Harlem (July 
1964), Newark, Detroit, nearby Milwaukee (July- 
August 1967), and Washington (April 1968). 
In April 1968 the assassination of Martin Luther 
King, Jr., brought demonstrations of rage and 
sorrow to most campuses, and for some WSU 
towns raised the specter of violence as black 
student marches and memorial services spilled 
from the campus into town. 

The events at Platteville in April 1968 are 
typical. Black students requested dismissal of 
classes for the day of Martin Luther King's 
funeral. A memorial service was scheduled for 
the Methodist Church in Platteville. This was 
followed by a march to the Student Center on 
campus. President Ullsvik thinks that attendance 
at the service was 99 percent black, and that 
150 or so blacks from Dubuque and Milwaukee 
participated in the march. The events were 
traumatic for the townspeople and for some 
students. On the return to the Student Center, a 
racist football player taunted the blacks, some 
of whom gave chase. Seventy-five or so students 
were involved in the resulting altercation. Al- 
though the city police came, they did not interfere. 
Upon arrival at the Student Center, Ullsvik 
attempted to ease tensions by talking with the 
group of 70 to 80 blacks and some 20 whites 
who remained from the march. The next day he 
headed off a mass exodus from campus in response 
to the nervous telephone summons of parents. 
(A/1/2-1). 



35 



TtiiH is a Hmall part of llic Itark^rniiiKl a^airiHt 
which ihc claiiriishiifss of hiark sliidi-nlh on 
campus Khould lie conHidcmMl. This r-lannishnc88 
is (listiirhin^ to some ailiiiinlKtralorK anil far-ull\. 
Their concern is probahly, in [lart, a rcsull of 
commitment to middle class liheral values which, 
for educated whites in their forties, fifties, and 
sixties, would likely include a high regard for 
racial integration as in8trum«mtal to achieving 
racial equality in society. President Carter at 
Whitewater, for example, expresses a deep 
philosophical aversion to the idea of black 
students isolating themselves on campus. (C/4/13). 
A black professor serving as advisor to the black 
student organization on another WSU campus 
counsels avoidance of separatism, which he 
equates with insecurity and an unhealthy "turning 
in on themselves" by blacks. (B/15/42). 

The black student from the Milwaukee ghetto 
goes to a WSU campus without any prior life 
experience that would suggest that the dominant 
white society places any particular value upon 
associating with him in residential neighborhoods, 
in school, in play, or in employment. He moves to 
college from a ghetto society conscious that he 
is entering a white domain in which he will be 
judged by whites by standards which he regards 
as much white as they are academic. All con- 
sideration taken into account, is he likely to 
heed an authoritative white exhortation to 
integrate himself, or is he more likely to seek 
the strength and security of association with 
the other black students on campus? 



Problems in housing 

Domitory housing. Restricted access to housing 
is a critical point on the circle of causation which 
accounts for the depressed status of black people 
in American society. The 1970 census reports 
that Milwaukee and Minneapolis are the hubs 
of the segregated suburban housing to be found 
in the United States. Black students radiating 
out to Wisconsin State University campuses are 
sensibly concerned about housing. When they 
arrive at the college the question is not whether 
their concern is warranted, but the degree to 
which it will be vindicated. 

Institutional problems — the origin of which 
are remote from the influx of black students to 
the WSU's — vex the lives of students and ad- 
ministrators, and are disproportionately disturb- 



ing to the neweht group arriving on the campuhes. 
One bucli problem in a glut of on-cariipii'^ dormi- 
tory faciliticB, which causes preftHureH on WSI 
regents and administrators to force a landlord - 
tenant relationsbij* u[ion btudents as a <'ondition 
of attending coJIege. (A/9/30). Ail freshmen and 
Ko[)homores must now spend four Mfmesterb in 
residence halls. (A/9/32). This forced inclunion 
breeds resentment which is no less real, although 
certainly less vehement, than that fostered by 
forr-ed exclusion. If there is merit to the separatist 
aspirations of black students, this rule, which 
seems in practice to dictate that freshmen and 
sophomores live on campus while junior^ and 
seniors are free to live off campus, cleaves a racial 
and cultural group which draws needed strength 
from close association. 

At Whitewater the director of housing is 
responsible to the dean of students. Lnder the 
director of housing are hall directors for each resi- 
dence hall. Each hall director has eight resident 
assistants (RA's). The housing director handles 
room assignments on an automated basis. He 
receives a copy of each admission notice, and 
sends to the newly admitted student a housing 
packet which includes a contract and a form on 
which to indicate certain information, including 
preferences as to residence hall and roommate. 
A preference for roommate can be honored onlv 
if the roommate is named and the preference is 
mutual. Freshmen room assignments occur in 
late July, at which time an effort is made to match 
rooms with the data earlier punched onto cards. 
(C/ 13/30-32). 

The late July scheduling of room assignments 
assures that rooms are being assigned only to 
those students who did not avail themselves 
of the July 15 deadline for room-deposit refund. 
This $50 deposit, which must be made in order 
to secure a room, presents a formidable and 
unexpected financial hurdle for some black 
students. Students also complain that living in 
the dormitories involves the purchase of a meal 
ticket and a variety of other unavoidable ex- 
penses. Thus, correctly or incorrectly, black 
students see mandatory domitory residence as 
imposing burdens which might otherwise be 
avoidable. (A/4/14). 

Black students at Whitewater reside together 
onlv if they have requested specific roommates, 
or as a result of coincidence, the director of 
housing reports. He has received complaints 
from white students assigned to room with 



36 



blacks. (C/13/30). At River Falls white parents 
are forewarned that their daughters may room 
with international students. Orientals, or blacks. 
(B/li/39j. 

Black students at Platteville are convinced 
that whites are asked their preference as to living 
with blacks. (A/4/13). Black students at White- 
water seem to express a preference for the west 
complex of residence halls, and this preference 
is honored if stated. However, students new to 
the residence halls may recognize the desirability 
of a change of halls only after settling in. The 
housing director is not inclined to engage in 
avoidable reshuffling after the semester has 
begun. He received, for example, a complaint 
of harassment from three black girls who wished 
to move from one hall to the west complex. 
Upon investigation he refused to move them, 
although promising to investigate any further 
allegations of harassment. (C/13/30). 

Black domitorv residents are conscious of 
patterns of behavior and usage of the dormitory 
facilities which set them apart from their white 
fellow residents and seem to grate upon the latter. 
(A/4/13). Some hall directors appear disturbed 
bv the behavior of black students, or hostile to 
them. (A/4/13). 

An argument between a hall director and a 
black resident at Whitewater was followed by an 
artif'ic iti the hall paper lecturing on appropriate 
black student behavior. (G/10/26). At River 
Falls black students complain that the "house- 
mothers" are snoopv. The housemothers know 
about long-distance calls which have come in, 
black students believe they sometimes receive 
their mail late (and that this has significance), 
and feel under scrutiny. (B/8/21). 

In one dormitory the housemother is said to 
have decided six black women should be grouped 
together. (B/8/21). Black students at River 
Falls are convinced they were segregated on a 
single floor and in a single wing of a residence 
hall in 1969-70. The entire town knew of their 
location, we were told, and anyone in town 
having business with a black student would go 
directly to the black residence sector. (B/8/21). 
About 21 black students are currently residing 
in dormitories at River Falls. (B/8/21). About 30 
black students are in residence halls at Platteville, 
and we are informed that one wing of Porter 
Hall is black (seven black girls) and the remaining 
students are scattered. (A 9/31). Cross-racial 
pairing at Platteville involves six black students. 



Fourteen black students requested pairing, and 
about 10 live in single rooms. (A/9/31). 

To the charges of segregation, housing authori- 
ties at River Falls respond that no matter how 
black students are assigned to rooms, they tend 
to cluster. All rooms are assigned in a manner to 
preclude discrimination. Choice is by lottery, 
with priority given to seniors, juniors, and 
sophomores. All freshmen room assignments are 
random unless specific and mutual roommate 
preferences are stated. 

Black students resent any hint of forced 
clustering, and may take "chance" concentration 
of blacks in a housing facility as confirmation of 
a policy of segregation. Black students appear 
incUned to cluster if permitted to follow their 
own preferences, and resent administrative prac- 
tices which prevent them from rooming together. 
They object, in short, to either compulsory 
segregation or compulsory integration. To see a 
logical anomaly in this position would be rather 
shallow. Certainly it expresses a degree of in- 
dividualism with which administrators should be 
able to live. 

Are the WSU dormitories social systems run 
by whites, but to which blacks are permitted 
entry? River Falls has no black resident assistants. 
(B/8/21). One black woman student applied for 
an RA position in 1970-71. She was carefully 
considered and turned down on personality 
grounds without racial implication. This is on 
authority of Dean of Women Nancy K. Knaak. 
(B/14/40). The school did have a black RA about 
5 years ago, and this girl was also Homecoming 
Queen. A young black woman now is a substitute 
night hostess (must be over 21). (B/14/40). 
Whitewater had three black resident assistants 
in 1970-71. Three students applied, all were 
quahfied, and all three were accepted. (C/13/31- 
32). We lack information on black RA's at the 
other two campuses studied. Insofar as black 
RA's provide assurance of free opportunity to 
participate in the governing of the residence 
halls, we lack evidence on which to base a con- 
clusive opinion. 

Off-campus housing 

Whitewater appears unique in having a blacl^ 
fraternity which provides housing for some 
students. Alpha Phi Alpha was locate^ on 
fraternity row in 1969 70. The house it occupied 
has been converted to apartments and it now 



37 



makes do with part of a house. (C/18/39). Also 
at Wliilewater, a good many hiark HtiidentH 
reside in University Inn, a privately owned 
off-campus residence which has the appearance 
of a converted howling alley. (C/13/.32). 

About 10 black students are estimated to 
live in town at Piatteville, and five at River 
Falls. (A/4/14; B/8/2]). Two facts seem very 
clear. Some black students are able to find 
housing in town. In each of the four communities 
we visited, the townspeople are obdurate in 
practicing housing discrimination against black 
students. Some town-gown friction is to be 
expected in any college community. Some local 
residents will feel antipathy toward the students 
who descend in engulfing numbers upon the 
community. We find that these "normal" tensions 
exist in varying degree in the communities 
visited, and above and beyond these, intensifying 
the problems confronting students away from 
home, is racial hostility which leads property 
owners who will rent to white students to refuse 
blacks. Thus every black student who finds 
private housing represents a special instance. 
Usually a concession has been made, a subterfuge 
has been successful, a premium of some kind 
has been paid. And many black students in 
residence in WSU dormitories are there not 
because they fall into the category of students 
required by regent rule to reside in college 
residence halls. They reside on campus because 
they are excluded from the community which is 
host to the campus. (A/4/13). 

Until 1969-70 the WSU regents required 
juniors and seniors under 21 to reside in approved 
housing on- or off-campus. That meant an effort 
to impose certain standards upon persons offering 
private housing to students. It also at least 
implied an effort to police the behavior of students 
in private housing. The revocation of this rule 
coincided with the spread of Milwaukee blacks 
to the WSU campuses. Undoubtedly, however, 
it was revoked as part of a general movement 
away from colleges assuming an in loco parentis 
role toward students. (C/13/31). We are told 
that revocation also responded to popular student 
JhrmrriT^. an4 to tW inenaeiag dkextisfaction of 
tile WSU a<hBk)kitnitorB with the results of 
their effort to play third party to an unenforceable 
contract. (A/9/30). 

Apparently some landlords were willing to 
rent to students so long as the school was in 
some way a party to the relationship, but not 



otherwise. The impression in I'latteville, at least, | 
is that eliiTiination of the a|i|>roverl li)«t led to 
some withdrawal of Flouring in town. I huo, 
as the 8chrx)l relaxed the reBtrictions u]xm Htudeni 
choice of housing, the housing market conhlrirted. ■ 
(A/9/30^. If this were the general experience, it \ 
further compounded the problems of black 
students seeking private housing in a discrimina- 
tory market. 

Nondiscrimination was one standard apparently 
applied by the schools in the davs of approved 
housing. The housing director at Vt hitewater, 
for example, tells of removing landlords from the 
approved housing list when satisfied the\ were 
refusing to rent to black students. (C 13 31^. 
The WSU's continue to maintain housing lists 
for the convenience of students and landlords, 
and appear ready to remove landlords from the 
list if they discriminate. When discrimination 
is called to the attention of housing officials they 
may make direct efforts to find a black student a 
room. (A/4/23; A/9/30; B/11/29). On cursorv 
observation it would seem that elimination of 
the approved housing list has not extricated 
college housing officials from a situation in which 
they have a presumed responsibility at least to 
help students secure off-campus housing, but no 
inducements or sanctions to employ to secure 
housing. 

Interviewers heard from numerous sources at 
Piatteville the story of some black students who 
a few years ago left town owing rent. (A 9 31). 
The maxim generalized from this is: "Don't rent 
to black students or you will lose out." Campus 
officials do not seem to think recent history 
supports this generalization, but say it is a fact 
of life in town. This is, perhaps, the rationale 
on which a black student who did find off-campus 
housing in Piatteville was compelled to pay a 
full semester's rent in advance. (A/4/13). Other 
students report they have secured housing in 
town by subletting from white friends who have 
gotten rooms or apartments. (A/4/14; C/18 39). 

Black staff has trouble, or anticipates trouble, 
in locating housing also. If they have secure 
housing, it is a result of subterfuge and pressure. 
(B/15'41). Or they mav commute considerable 
distSMces from cities in which housing is available 
to minorities to the WSU town of employment. 
(A/3 12: C/3 6). The officials of the WSU host 
communities do not place fair housing high on 
their agendas for action. They do seem concerned 
about the qualitv of housing offered students in 



38 



town. (B/17/45; C/17/38). Attempts by the 
WSU's to alter community mores on housing 
and public accommodations would require direct 
and sustained personal leadership by the presi- 
dents. The [jresidenls of the schools seem to 
recognize the problem, but restrict their involve- 
ment to expressions of personal concern, exhorta- 
tion, creatino: committees which bridge town 
and gown, and sponsoring public events at which 
expressions of mutual regard and pleas for 
"human understanding" are part of the program. 
(A 9, 31j. 

Black sludont organization 

Separatism is currently important to black 
students. The im[)ression on each of the campuses 
visited is that 1970-71 has been a quiet and 
relatively withdrawn year for black students. 
In some sectors, black students are seen as de- 
moralized and disillusioned, nursing their wounds 
in privacy. In other quarters they are seen as 
hostile and arrofjanl. The most optimistic in- 
terpretation of the meaning of the black ex- 
perience on campus this year was offered by a 
\^ hitewater professor who speculated that the 
"black students feel they have to get themselves 
together before they get together with whites." 
(C/5/17; C/2/2: D/1/1). 

Each of the four campuses visited bv CCK 
representatives has a black student organization. 
At Platteville it is the Ebony Club. At Oshkosh 
and \\ hitewater, it is the Afro-American Society. 
At River Falls it is the Black Student Coalition. 
On each campus a black center is a major issue. 

Oshkosh has a black cultural center, owned by 
the Student Union and supported by student 
activitv f<'es. It was established after the campus 
allocation committer awarded $27,000 to the 
Afro-American Society for that purpose in the 
wake of tile 1068 mass suspension. The unusuallv 
large amount of the grant is thought to be a 
form of reparation for punishing so many black 
students for the events of "Black Thursday". 
The large budget has enabled the students to 
undertake recruitment programs, to bring in 
current talent such as Cannonball Adderly, and 
to engage in other promotional efforts. The 
center's location is in a single-family house, 
somewhat remote from the campus. An as- 
sistant dean, (>urtis Holt, who is one of two 
black administrators on campus, is in charge 
of stalling the center. (D/2/1). The Oshkosh 



Cultural Center is unique in the WSU System; 
its hold on life as a culturally discrete activity 
is, however, tenuous. (See p. 63.) 

On .\pril 23, 1971, the WSU regents approved 
a "multicultural center" for foreign and minorit\ 
students at Whitewater. (Milwaukee Journal, 
April 24, 1971.) President Carter of Whitewater 
told the regents "the new center . . . will include 
a black heritage area but will be much broader 
in concept. It will take in students who belong 
to all minority groups, as well as foreign students." 
The president estimated the annual operating 
cost at $12,000 to $15,000. Edward Spicer, 
minority specialist at the WSU office in Madison, 
evidently envisages the multicultural center as 
performing social, scholastic help, and community 
relations functions. Emphasis would be placed 
on "multi" and separatism would be eschewed. 
(Spicer memorandum, June 3, 1971.) 

Whether Wisconsin black students will accept 
the multicultural center as responsive to their 
longstanding demand for a separate "black house" 
at ^'hitewater remains to be seen. The "multi" 
and the emphasis upon integration as a center 
policy may be face-saving euphemisms under the 
guise of which the regents are giving the black 
students a facility which they anticipate will, 
in fact, be used almost exclusively by blacks. 
Perhaps this is how it will work out, regardless 
of the regents' intent. At any rate, it is revealing, 
and not surprising, that the response to demands 
for a black cultural center should, instead of 
emphasizing the cultural pluralism of the United 
States, appear to link American minoritv cultures 
to those of the most alien and, therefore, exotic 
students on the WSU campuses, the international 
students. The Journal story cited quotes Edward 
Spicer to the effect that one main function of 
the center would be to provide advisers to help 
minority and foreign students, particularly in 
their first year. If we gauge accurately the 
problems of the W'isconsin black student on 
WSU campuses and in WSU communities, 
lumjiing the black students with the interna- 
tional students will only exacerbate the blacks' 
sense of being shortchanged. 

Tlie regent action is in response to prolonged 
agitating by the Afro-American Societv at 
Whitewater. An early and continuing form of 
the effort was to seek space in the Universitv 
Center building for the exclusive use of black 
students. This request has repeatedly been turned 
down on grounds of lack of space and on grounds 



39 



of principle. No sjtace in tlu- structure can he 
set aside for the prol<)nge(l cxchjsive ust; of Init 
one segment of the students on campus, it is 
said. (C/2/2; C/16/35). 

Black student resentment at Whitewater was 
compounded by administration efforts at com- 
promise which took on the character of halfway 
measures shortly regretted and rescinded. In 
March 1969 President Carter authorized the use 
of a dining hall area for a black cultural center, 
and in February 1970 closed it after black students 
resisted its partial use as emergency classroom 
facilities following the loss of 47 classrooms in 
the Old Main fire. (C 4 13; Royal Purple story, 
Feb. 12, 1970.) A WSU Whitewater Royal 
Purple story of February 12, 1970 says in part: 
"During a press conference Tuesday afternoon. 
Carter said: 'I'm going to wait until some re- 
sponsible black students propose a plan for a 
black cultural center which will work, and the 
majority of black students here for an education 
will make it work, before a cultural center is 
opened again'." This attribution of a conditionally 
favorable attitude toward a black cultural center 
does not jibe with the president's statement to 
Commission representatives in March 1971 that 
he took a proposal for a black center to the 
WSU Board on March 5. but without recom- 
mendation. His reason for lack of recommendation 
was his basic philosophical belief that it is un- 
healthy for blacks to isolate themselves on 
campus. (C/4 '13). 

A black center became a principal issue at 
Platteville in early 1970. The center was one of 
about 18 demands presented to President Ullsvik 
by black students. Faculty and townspeople 
were divided on the issue, and much attention 
was given to the demand in the WSU Platteville 
student paper. The Exponent. The "demand" was 
refused on grounds of regents' policy. (A 2 10). 
At the time of the Commission visit, the United 
Campus Ministry across Main Street from the 
campus appeared to be a center for black 
students. 

The Black Student Coalition at River Falls 
submitted a plan for a black center in October 
1970, but by February 1971 had heard nothing 
in response to its request. 

The new midticultural center proposed for 
Whitewater seems to represent the preferred 
format which the regents and administrators 
will seek to establish or convert on each of 
the campuses. The Black House at Osbkosh is 



slated for demolition and the activitv will l>e 
relfM'ated in the Student l.riion building in a 
multicultural setting. (D/2/2; D/13/14). 



Black participation in extracurricular event- 
Commission representatives heard of littl<- 
black participation in the regularly scheduled 
extracurricular a«-tivities on campus, but that 
little was significant. Black students at Kiver 
Falls have participated in student affairs in 
1970-71. Two black students sit in the student 
senate, and black students \ eronica Terrell and 
Moses Racks, as the Black Student Coalition 
entries, won the Winter Carnival King and Queen 
contest in 1970 71. (B 1 1). \X bite and black 
students agree that while there may have been 
some anti-Greek sentiment in the vote, it is in 
large part a measure of the qualit\ of black 
organization and participation in the event. 
(B/4/10). 

Black students at River Falls had a cheerleader 
in the first quarter of 1970-71. About 10 black 
girls tried out for choir in 1969-70 and none was 
accepted. This is assumed evidence of discrimina- 
tion by blacks. (B/1/12). On the other hand, a 
professor of music, very sympathetic to the 
cause of black students, reports that six blacks 
tried out for the choir and one was accepted. 
He further is confident the reason for rejection 
was straightforward: inabilitv to sightread music. 
(B/3/8). 

At Whitewater black students have par- 
ticipated — on stage — in theatrical productions, 
two black students work with the Royal Purple, 
a black student has served on Homecoming 
Committee, the black fraternity is represented 
in the Interfraternity Council, and it is believed 
that black students are being rushed for formerly 
all-white fraternities and sororities. AU this is 
suggested by the editor of the Royal Purple. 
(C/7/19-20). Black students have been invited 
to participate on the University Center com- 
mittees, and have served. Blacks were also 
included in the planning for Iceorama, and 
participated in this event. This year the black 
students held their own Homecoming. (C / 10 25 . 
A minister close to the campus scene at ^ bite- 
water believes there is increasing willingness on 
the part of black students to work within the 
svstem, but for different objectives from those 
of the white students. (C 10 '25). 



40 



At Platleville black students complain that 
they pav the student activity fee, but that 
campus entertainment is not black oriented. 
They report Platteville has just recently reached 
the point of talking about black representation 
on the entertainment committee. (A/4/17). 

Athletics 

Black students are convinced that all phases 
of athletics on the WSU campus are hostile to 
them. It is believed that, insofar as athletic 
departments recruit for intercollegiate teams, 
they consciously recruit white athletes; that 
white athletes are favored in selecting varsity 
teams; that black members of varsity teams 
tend not to be played; that black students 
are discriminated against in physical education 
classes; and that the lettermen's associations 
are racially biased. This is a general indictment 
to which very few exceptions were made by the 
students interviewed on four ^ SU campuses. 
On three ' of the four campuses the athletic 
department was seen as housing the most racially 
biased faculty members on campus. Athletics 
is one of the areas in which the lack of black 
staff is starllingly evident. The CCR State Com- 
mittee believes that any program for improving 
relations between athletic personnel and black 
students must include the hiring of competent 
black coaching staff. 

Overt bias is attributed to some coaches and 
instructors. A black staff member at one Vt SU, 
for example, was told by one coach to "take 
your boys out of here, they don't belong here 
anyway." (D/9/11). This is typical of other 
stories heard by Commission representatives. 
Sometimes the memory of a former coach lingers 
and black students are reluctant to test a <-limate 
which they formerly knew to be hostile. Black 
students at Whitewater were unhappy with 
basketball under an earlier coach. They reported 
thev had not tried out the new coach. (C/ 18/40). 
Bla«:k students who are on teams may quit because 
thev feel they are not getting a fair deal. Black 
basketball players at River Falls quit the team 
this year on grounds they were not being played. 
(B/1/1). 

Some of the discrimination alleged is subtle. 
In football, black players may be played de- 
fensively but never offensively, or the tendency 
in all sports may be to play them only in the 
last minutes of the game. (B/8/19). Coaches arc 



under pressure by alumni and the press to show 
preference to [)layers from the local ar»-a. (D/9/I0). 
This kind of discrimination, it is suggested, 
"dents" the performance of black players in 
ways that may not bi' obvious to a casual observer. 
(B/8/19). Students making such charges tend 
to follow up with discussion indicating they 
are clearly aware that the talents of players vary 
and that coaches must discriminate on the basis 
of ability. They believe that under cover of doing 
this, racial discrimination is being practiced. 
(B/8/19; B/15/43). 

Coaches see misunderstanding rather than 
discrimination underlying student complaints. 
One coach who took this line, when asked about 
recruiting, reported that he does recruit in 
Milwaukee high schools but doesn't go to core 
high schools because he does not feel familiar 
with them. (B 7 18). It is this kind of unfamil- 
iarity which probably causes much of the black 
sense of being discriminated against. And the 
coaches have some complaints of their own. 
President Guiles at Oshkosh voiced a complaint 
which was paraphrased by some coaches: black 
students are sometimes pressured by their fellow 
blacks not to participate in college athletics, and 
these pressures are thought to cause them to 
play less well than they otherv.ise might. (D/l/2). 
Coaches complain that black team members 
"gang up" when they have a ])robleni rather 
than handling it as individuals. Black players, 
it is said, tend to stick together and stay apart 
from the white players. (C/12/28). A chief 
problem with black players, it is said, is "keeping 
them scholastic" — that is, scholastieally eligible 
to play. (C 12/28). 

It is common knowledge that athletic depart- 
ments have been resislent to the counter-culture 
styles of personal appearance and interpersonal 
relations. We hear frequent expostulations on 
the tradition of hard, tough coaching and playing, 
with heavy emphasis ujion dis('ii)liiie and team- 
work, which is associated with college athletics. 
Criticism or suggestion for change in the tradi- 
tional way of doing things are frequently in- 
terpreted as threats to "use football to correct 
social ills" and prompt responses extolling 
ability, discii)line, teamwork, and athletic promise. 
(C 12 28). We felt some coaches, in referring 
to their colleagues, used the imagery of the tough, 
uncompromising authoritarian as a euphemistic 
way of saying that the individual described either 
did not like or did not get along with black 



41 



8tuflcnl8. It is clear that ample ojiportiitiity 
exists to use the verbal gloss of college allilctics 
to excuse antibiack attitude and behavior. It 
is also clear that blacks in anion and in worri 
are evidencing their conviction thai WSL ath- 
letics — viewed as part of the curriculum and as 
an intercollegiate activity — discriminates against 
blacks. 

A number of incidents have resulted from race- 
related spectator beliavior at athletic events. A 
chief provocation to whites has been the refusal 



by black Bludents to stand for the National 
Anthem or (lag salute. White baiting of black 
players and black student cheering for the 
visiting team are exam|>les of Sfiectator cxprcsbion 
of animosity which can result in violence. Thus, 
the tendency of some (X)ache8 to express conf;ern 
that black loyalty to raw; exixeds loyallN to 
institution or team is given credence by 8[>ectator 
behavior. (C/I2/28). This concern may be accurate 
but naive, or it may be a measure of the distorted 
perception of some coaches. 



42 



PART 4 PROBLEMS IN TOWN 



Lnwelcome guests 

Black students feel they are regarded as in- 
truders in tile W SL liost communities. Tliey may 
liave a legal right to be there and to attend the 
local WSU, but it is difficult for townspeople 
and some students to see why they should want 
to come or why they should be tolerated, much 
less welcomed. 

It is assumed that the Oshkosh Chamber of 
Commerce exemplified prevailing community 
attitudes when it precipitously circulated among 
its members some 500 petitions calling for 
permanent expulsion of the black students 
involved in the November 21, 1968 demonstration 
on campus. Tiie petitions were later witiidrawn 
under criticism, but withdrawal, if it emphasized 
the ineptness of the affair, did not soften its 
overtones of racial hosliiily. (D 10, 13: Oshkosh 
Advance-Titan, Dec. 5, 1968). 

A woman is said to have asked black students 
at an Oshkosh committee meeting: "We let 
you come to school up here, what more do you 
want?" "We arc not here to please anyone," 
the students respond. (D 9 11). The native 
)X isconsin black student is made to feel like an 
outsider — and an imwanted outsider —in his 
own land. This is particularly galling to the 
black resident of a supposedly enlightened 
Northern State. And while he may lack knowl- 
edge of the statistic on relative Vi isconsin in- 
vestment of public education resources in further- 
ing the education of international students and 
Wisconsin minority residenls, he senses that an 
accent or exotic dress denoting alien status would 
make him much more welcome in the WSU 
coninMiiiilN and more va!iic<l on cam|)us. 

At Platteville, where tbiack students have been 
a source of great local concern, local residents 
are proud of ihe Fresh Air I'rogram of the Joint 
Social .Action Committee, «hiili maintains a 
store front educational center in the inner-cily 
area of Chicago, and since 196.5 has brought 



black youths from Chicago for "Fresh Air" 
visits with area families. Seventy-one black 
children came to Platteville in July 1970 under 
the program. "We would never have known w^hat 
Negro people are like," one participant in the 
program is quoted as saying. "You just don't 
believe they'll be as much like you as they are. 
It's a great experience for us younger kids." 
(The Platteville Journal, July 14. 1970.) 

A militant might use a variety of derisive 
phrases to depict the Fresh Air Program and the 
evidence of ethnic parochialism which can be 
read into the quotation. We are concerned merely 
with pointing out the lack of carrv over of attitudes 
of hospitality and attractively naive interest with 
respect to voung blacks brought by the com- 
niunity from Chicago. The relevance of such 
hospitalitv to black students who come to the 
WSU host town to do their own thing en route 
to a college degree — college being a major industry 
of the town— is just not seen. 

We are not authority for the position that 
expressions of interest and efforts at hospitality 
on the part of citizens of WSU host towns will 
not be misconstrued interpreted as condescen- 
sion or th(; kind of tolerance which is bred of 
contempt. Laudable motives of the sort which 
lead to invitations to black children for fresh 
air visits — a pleasant respite from the concrete 
and asphalt of Chicago — might translate into 
overtures which black college students from 
Miiwauke<- would see as benevolent paternalism 
at best. We think the risk should be taken. 



WSU community relations programs 

WSU-Plutteville has u Pionrrr KoMMitabl« at 
which President L llsvik meets 16 times a >ear 
wiiii an\one who wishes to discuss campus 
problems. (A/I/7). Black students do not value 
i( liighl\. saving that the president refers all 
(piestions U> his administrative staff for response. 



43 



atid the rncetingH an- highly formal. fA/4/24). 
The WSU-commiinily version of thin in the 
UnivcrHily Houndlahh-, which imtln twice yearly. 
These m<!taing8 are atlended by WSL repre- 
sentatives, representatives of service clubs, the 
chainher of commerce, city ofTK-ials, and others. 
The WSU representation includes administrators, 
the local regent (W. Roy Kopp, who is also the 
president of the Board of Hef^ents), members of 
the faculty, the student senate, and other repre- 
sentative groups. The Ebony Club has been 
invited to attend. President Ullsvik reports, but 
has not done so. (A/1/8). 

WSU-Platteville officials are reluctant to use 
their influence in the community. As the chi('f local 
industry, they believe the local community is 
sensitive to and resentful of WSU pressure. 
(A/9/32). President Ullsvik is aware there is 
some town resentment of the WSU community, 
but believes it to be minimal. (A/1/8). In addition 
to the University Roundtable, the Pioneer 
Patrons — "virtually a Who's Who for South- 
western Wisconsin" — meets twice yearly, to 
tour the campus, hear briefings on WSU affairs, 
and attend a dinner at the Student Center. 
Every 2 or 3 years the international students 
are the subject of a Pioneer Patrons program. 
(A/1/8-9). 

At WSU-River Falls President George R. 
Field told Commission visitors that community 
relations is a part of the WSU president's job, 
but in order to get his job done, he has to delegate 
responsibility and this has been given to the 
campus human relations committee. He sees it 
to be his job to support the HRC. (B/ 10/27). 
HRC spokesmen report the committee tried to 
get a community relations program established 
at River Falls in 1968 but, somehow, it did not 
take. (B/13/37). 

At WSU-Whitewater, President Carter created 
a Community-Campus Committee after the 
December 1969 Phi Chi incident. He wanted to 
employ this as a device for exposing black students 
to community service clubs, churches, and other 
groups. The committee held some meetings, but 
nothing came of them. A human relations com- 
mittee functions on campus with, he hopes, 
increasing effectiveness. (C/4/14). Whitewater 
ministers have taken some initiative on race 
relations, have marched with black students, 
and one church in town held a black history series. 
Ministers feel their parishoners have not ap- 
preciated such activity. (C/10/24). The ministers 



also fee! they have \>fi-i\ effective in l)rin((in(; 
blar-k students ami it]<- new city manager and 
police chief t<({.'etli<r for talkh. CC/10/26;. 

In iJecemher 1970 President Roger K. (Guiles 
reported to Commission visitors that a rap 
session had recently been held on the VISL- 
Oshkosh campus, at which husiness and political 
leaders and student representatives digcuHsed 
W.Sl.-communitv relatione. The only black person 
in attendance was Ted Mack, head of the lo«;al 
brewery which now produces People's Beer. No 
black student or faculty member attended. 
(D/1/1). 

The record clearly tells a story of lack of will, 
skill, or sense of appropriateness to develop a 
vigorous program of campus-community rela- 
tions, under the aegis of the WSU, having among 
its purposes the acculturation of the community 
to American minority group students. 



Black students and local police 

Enrollment of each of the nine principal 
campuses in the WSU System amounts to a 
significant proportion of the host city population, 
ranging from about one-twelfth to three-quarters. 
Four campuses enroll students in numbers which 
swell the host city population by 40 percent or 
more of its U.S. Census population figure. These 
data, and table 4.1, demonstrate the school- 
year population impact of the WSU's on their 
communities. This impact translates into income 
and cost terms for the \X'SU cities. One cost which 
rises in dollar and human terms with population 
influx is public safety. 

Although we list the WSU's in rank order 
according to the magnitude of the student 
enrollment in relation to the city population, 
and have visited the three schools with the 
highest magnitudes, we do not wish to impute 
sophisticated meaning to the table. The visiting 
team did not set out to visit the three ^ SU 
schools having the largest ratio of enrollment in 
relation to local population. Too many variables 
would have to be held constant, and too much 
data collected under carefully defined circum- 
stances, to permit facile generalizations from the 
table. Suffice it to say that the introduction each 
year of a highly compacted increment amounting 
to one-third to three-quarters of a local com- 
munity's population spells policing problems of 
varied quaUtv and greater magnitude than would 



44 



Table 4.1 
Local WSU Enrollment in Relation to Population of Host City 





city 


Population 


WSU enrollment 


W8U 


N 


As percent ot host 
city population 


River Falls 


River Falls 


4,857 
12,038 

6,957 
11,275 
23,479 
53,221 
44,619 
51,151 
32,237 


3,586 
8,212 
4,205 
4,557 

7,771 
9,525 
7,195 
5,245 
2,493 


73 8 


Whitewater 

Platteville 

Stout State 

Stevens Point .. .. 


Whitewater 

Platteville 

Menomonee 

Stevens Point 


68.2 
60.4 
40.4 
33 


Oshkosh 

Eau Claire 


Oshkosh 

Eau Claire. 


17.8 
16 1 


La Crosse . 


La Crosse. 


10 2 


Superior 


Superior. _ 


7.7 



.Sources: Enrollment — HKW OCR 1970. I'opulHlion — U.S. Census 1970 for cities over 10,000; Wisconsin Bluebook, 
1970 (1960 U.S. Census figures) for Platteville and lliver Falls. 



be confronted by a noncollege town with a stable 
population. 

/\dd to this a cohesive urban black student 
enrollment where the local black population is 
nil, and the policing problem takes on added 
dimension. The three schools with the largest 
enrollment in relation to local population are 
also the three with the largest enrollment of 
black students proportionate to total enrollment 
on campus. They arrange in varying sequence 
on the two lists, but comprise the top three of 
each. (See table 1.7.) To the extent to which 
black students bring with them an apprehension 
concerning all police, the local police are by 
definition a subjective problem for black students. 
To the extent to which police are made ap- 
prehensive by the mere presence of blacks, or 
by cultural mores which black students observe 
which distinguish them from the white com- 
munity, although not in a way violative of law, 
the [tolice can be an objective problem for black 
students. Obviously, if black students break the 
law in a manner which courts police attention, the 
police problem for the blacks concerned is ob- 
jective, incurred, and reciprocal. And this is 
what we mean when we speak of black students 
as a police problem and police as a black student 
problem. 

At River Falls, Whitewater, and Platteville 
black students are quite vocal in complaining 
about police. With the exception of a single 



practice complained of by students and conceded 
by a police chief. Commission representatives 
could not evaluate the student complaints or 
the training, policies, or practices of the city 
police departments. We did not receive com- 
plaints concerning the Oshkosh Police Depart- 
ment and, indeed, heard considerable praise of it 
from faculty and black students. If we were 
inclined, even on slender evidence, to indict 
police departments, we would confront grave 
problems of fairness resulting from change of 
personnel, and presumably policies and practices, 
the last two, one would hope, being in response 
to enlarged understanding of student-police 
problems in a college community. 

At Whitewater a good deal of the resentment 
of black students is directed at agencies of justice 
in the Walworth Coimty seat, Klkhorn, where 
disciplinary hearings and trials have been held. 
Black students and persons cognizant of their 
problems say that they don't get a break at the 
hands of the law enforcement officials of White- 
water or Walworth County. The city manager, 
Allen M. Perkins, and Police Chief Donald R. 
Simon are both new at Whitewater and un- 
encumbered by parlici|)ation in the upheavals 
of 1969 and 1970. Both have gone out of their 
way to meet with student groups, including 
black students, and speak a sensitive and en- 
lightened brand of law enforcement. (C, 17/37). 
The city manager is quoted in the March 9, 1971, 



45 



Royal Purple to the effect that poMcc must he 
gensitivc as well as lough. Blaek students at 
Whitewater are likely to coiuinue to judge the 
police as a part of the white community helping 
to impose its will and exact its retrihution on 
blacks until new leadership, policies, and practices 
show tangible effect challenging that impression. 

Black students at River Falls believe the local 
police began carrying shotguns in police cars 
after arrival of the blacks a few years ago. 
(B/18/48). Patrolling cars are looked upon as a 
personal menace. (B/8/22). Police respond that 
area police departments have carried shotguns 
in their cars since an armed robbery suspect 
shot a Hudson police officer 10 years ago. 
(B/18/48). Black students insist they are harassed 
by local police who are suspicious and hostile 
toward them. Local police insist that black 
students are treated the same as other students, 
and one police chief, at least, goes so far as to 
sav that students are treated, or will be treated, 
on the same basis as other citizens. (C/17/37). 
Probably the view of Platteville Police Chief 
Clay Mellor, that black students are unduly 
sensitive and become agitated over things which 
seem irrelevant to the police authorities, is fairly 
widespread. (A/15/45). 

The single outstanding example of differential 
treatment of black students by local police is a 
practice complained of at Platteville. There the 
blacks intensely resent, and Chief of Police 
Mellor readily admits, the practice of taking all 
black students arrested and held by the police 
to the jail in Lancaster, the county seat. Any- 
arrested person kept longer than overnight is 
transferred to Lancaster. But white students 
arrested and kept overnight will be held in 
Platteville, whereas black students arrested and 
held overnight are dispatched to Lancaster. The 
chief ascribes the practice to a tendency on the 
part of black students to congregate at the jail 
when they hear that one of their fellows has 
been arrested. At the time of conversing with 
Commission representatives in October 1970, he 
could recall taking four or five black students to 
Lancaster. (A/15/45). This is a clear infringement 
of equal protection rights, and black students 
understandably regard the practice as evidence 
of official and invidious community discrimination 
against them. Police Chief Simon at Whitewater, 
where substantial unrest involving black students 
has been experienced, says that the arrest of a 



black student does not result in a mob 8<.-en<- 
at the jail. \one of the 18 Ktudenth arrchted and 
hc!<! in jail in Vthitcwaler during calendar 1970 ■ 
was black. (C/i7/.37A). 

An important and widespread black htudcni 
com[)laint. and one which underlich their [x-rcep- 
tion thai they do not receive equal treatment from 
police, is that white complaints against blacks 
are treated as presumptivcK valid, and black 
students are questioned in an atmosphere which 
accepts that presumption. Black complaints 
against whites are treated by the police with 
skepticism. When police are called to deal with a 
conflict situation involving blacks and white-, 
the police invariably talk fir»t with the whit'- 
students involved. This, again, implies that th<' 
white students are the most authf>ritative or 
reliable source of information. 

Black students also resent what they take t<. 
be the practice of storekeepers in town to shadow 
them when they enter stores. All eyes are on th'- 
black student when he shops. "A white friend."' 
complains one Platteville black student, "could 
clean out the display window while the manager 
watched me." (A/4'/23-24). In River Falls th^^ 
complaint is heard that clerks are always in thf^ 
same aisle as black shoppers and "want to help 
you before you arrive." Black girls feel that the 
"accidental" opening of dressing room curtain- 
while they are trying on clothing is malicious. 
(B/8/22). In Oshkosh students talk of "the 
Oshkosh stare". (D 8 '9). Black students find that 
store managers are too ready to accuse them of 
shopfifting and to apprehend and hold them for 
the police who then come, search the student, and 
find no evidence of shoplifting. (A 4/ 14). 

Platteville poUce report the chief complaints 
received on black students are shopfifting and 
disturbing the peace. Shoplifting is a problem 
with students, white and black. Disturbing the 
peace is an offense on which police will attempt 
to avoid an arrest. (A 15 45). River FaUs poUce 
estimate that petty larceny (shopfifting) and 
drunkenness and disorderly conduct are the 
chief student offenses. Lpon consulting their 
records, thev reported that 39 shoplifting cases 
went to court in calendar 1970, in 34 of which 
students were involved. A rough estimate of 
black student involvement would be five or six 
out of the 34. (B 18 47). The Whitewater poUce 
estimate that 35 percent of all complaints came 
from the university, including fraternity row 



46 



ami Harmony Hall in calendar 1970. Chief 
Simon at ^ hitewater does not regard student 
ghoitiit'ling as a big problem. (C/17/37). 

WSU-city police cooperation 

The Hoard of Regents and the county and 
municipal police have concurrent law enforce- 
ment jurisdiction on campus: 

The board of regents shall have concurrent 
police supervision over all property under its 
jurisdiction. The duly aj>pointed agents of 
the board of regents may arrest, with or without 
warrant, any person on such property violating 
a state law or a rule made under this subsection, 
deliver such person to any court having 
jurisdiction over such violation, and execute a 
complaint charging such person with such 
violation. 

This subsection does not impair the duty of 
county or municipal police oflficers within 
their jurisdictions to arrest and take before 
the proper court persons found in a state of 
intoxication, engaged in any disturbance of 
the peace or violating any state law on any 
property under the jurisdiction of the board of 
regents. 

(Wisconsin Statutes 1969, ch. 37.11 (c), (d).) 

One should not conclude from the statutory 
provisions that all WSU campus security person- 
nel have full police powers, including authority 
to arrest. The regents, in September 1970, ap- 
proved the award of Board of Regents arrest 
powers to security personnel who have completed 
the Beloit Police Academy program (some 400 
hours of training) or equivalent and completed 
6 months' probationary service. Under this rule, 
four WSU security personnel, all located at 
Whitewater and all put through the Beloit 
program at WSU expense, qualified for Board of 
Regents arrest powers. Other security personnel 
are locally deputized, deriving their arrest power 
from county or miuiicij)al authority, or lack the 
arrest power. (W, 3, 3). In March 1971, the 
regents amended the rule to bring the standard 
into conforinity with the less rigorous ^ isconsin 
Law Enforcement Standards Board requirement 
of 240 hours of training, which may be taken 
under LKSB auspices, plus 80 hours of training 
locally. (W/3/4). As of July 1971, in ad.lition 
to Whitewater, which had security personnel 



authorized to exercise Board of Regents arrest 
powers, Eau Claire and Superior had personnel 
qualified to exercise such powers imder the new 
regents' rule. Six schools, Eau Claire. Platteville, 
River Falls, Stout, Superior, and Whitewater, 
had locally deputized security personnel, and 
the security personnel of three WSU's, La Crosse, 
Oshkosh, and Stevens Point, lacked any arrest 
power. (W/3 '6). 

The WSU campus security forces are in the 
process of enlargement and professionalization. 
Since 1969 campus security on the WSU campuses 
has moved from a watchman operation, run by 
the physical ])lant department on campus, to 
a professional policing operation, usually reporting 
to a vice president. Andrew Kundrat, WSU 
Systems Office Security Coordinator (an office 
created in 1969) attributes the recent security 
developments to belated recognition of the 
need to modernize any response to national and 
WSU campus unrest. He cites as three precip- 
itating events Black Thursday at Oshkosh, the 
Old Main fire at Whitewater, and the ROTC 
demonstrations at Stevens Point. Security has 
been tightened, not in response to a black problem 
on camjius. he reports, but in response to a 
variety of expressions of unrest. (W/'3/4-5). 

Mr. Kundrat mentions, incidentally, that in 
November 1968, at the time of Black Thursday 
at Oshkosh (discussed in the next section). 
President Guiles had no effective way of signalling 
the campus security that he required help. 
Communications have improved since then. This 
alerts us to the possibility, however, that a well 
trained W SL campus security, versed in human 
and race relations, could be an effective force 
for preventing escalation of small incidents into 
large disturbances requiring the summoning of 
large-scale police reinforcements from off-campus. 
We presume this is a purpose the WSU System 
administration has in mind for the campus 
security. 

As security coordinator, Kundrat has been 
in general charge of formulating proposed campus 
security policy and supervising its administra- 
tion at the campus level. (W/3/1). WSU-Platte- 
ville has the only police science program in the 
system and efforts have been made to draw 
upon it as a source of recruitment and expertise. 
The hope is to recruit police science trained 
security directors for each of the campuses. As 
further part of an effort to enhance their profes- 



47 



Tabic 4.2 

Comparative SlrenRlh of WSl; Security 

Forces and Local Municipal Police 

Departments 





wsu 

Security 
Force 


Municipal 

Police 
Department 


River Falls 


7 

11 

7 

7 

7 or 8 

11 

7 or 8 

11 

7 or 8 


7 


Whitewater 




20 


Platteville 




13 


Stout State (Menomonee) 

Stevens Point - 


25 
31 


Oshkosh 




74 


Eau Claire . -. 


57 


La Crosse . _ . 


75 


Superior 


60 



Sources: WSU Security Force — Andrew Kundrat, WSU 
Security Coordinator. Municipal Police Departments — 
Stevens Point, Oshkosh, Eau Claire, La Crosse, Superior, 
from Municipal Year Book 1969; Whitewater and 
Menomonee, telephone inquiry ; River Falls and Platteville, 
information collected at time of CCR visitation. 



sional qualifications and to improve rapport 
with faculty and students, campus security 
personnel are encouraged to take coursework 
at the WSU. (W/3/2). 

Security personnel do not wear guns or carry 
batons, Mr. Kundrat reports. They may carry 
mace. They are under instruction to avoid 
altercation — if assaulted to get out, not to fight. 
In event of disturbance, county and/or municipal 
police are to be called, the local National Guard 
commander is alerted, and direction of the 
policing effort is assumed by off-campus pohce. 
(W/3/2-3). 

The security budget is now about S500,000 
per year and the security personnel on nine 
campuses numbers about 78. (See table 4.2 for 
comparative data on WSU campus security 
strength and strength of host city police depart- 
ments.) 

The individual WSU institutions may negotiate 
agreements with city or county pohce stipulating 
the pattern of cooperation which will govern 
their day-to-day relations, the conditions under 
which police will be called to campus, and the 
elements of an emergency plan for deaUng 
with large-scale disturbances or other condi- 
tions on campus. Under central guidance, the 



campiiH Kecurity forcew are moving toward 
the hliaririg of the l<><al (Kjlic«; radio hand or use 
of a hand compatible with lof.-al [Kjlice radio 
equipment. River Falls, Platteville, and Stout 
.Stale Hhare the municipal polire handH. TU' 3 (>). 
(River Falls is temporarily without a tie-in to the 
municipal police radio which haft <hanp<-d bands.; 

President Lllsvik at ^SL -Platteville described 
a written arrangement with the city police. 
(A/1/5). College administrators and the Platte- 
ville police chief relate incidents of a few years 
past which indicate a close liaison in dealing 
with student problems developing off-campus. 
(A/1/4-5; A/15/43J. Riot-type incidents provide 
the model for planning joint action. Chief Mellor 
at Platteville implies as much in saying that 
unless someone is being injured on campus 
he will not respond to a call to the campus 
until he has gathered adequate force. The 
adequate force would include auxiliary j>olice 
and county sheriff's personnel. (A/15/43). Mellor 
and President Lllsvik tell of the occasion a 
few years ago when black students marched 
to city hall to complain of alleged police dis- 
crimination against them. The pohce chief was 
the only policeman in sight during the permitted 
march, but had a garage full of reservists ready 
for action if needed. (A/15/43). The WSU presi- 
dent feels that his rapport and close contact with 
local law officials helped prevent violence on 
that occasion. (A/1/4-5). 

At WSU-River Falls Commission representa- 
tives were given access to the tentative agree- 
ment which had been negotiated, as of February 
1971, with the River Falls Pohce Department. 
(R/16/43-44). The River Falls agreement provides 
that campus security will handle on-campus 
complaints and citv police will relav on-campus 
complaints to campus security. Criminal com- 
plaint statistics will be provided to city pohce 
by campus security monthly. Serious crimes — 
drug abuse, burglary, assault, auto theft, etc. — 
will be jointly handled by campus security and 
city pohce, the latter to be responsible for jailing 
and setting court appearances for persons ap- 
prehended. Citv police will advise the vice 
president of student affairs when a student is 
confined, hospitaUzed, or knowri to be in serious 
trouble. Unlawful assembhes or disorderly conduct 
constitute one of the classes of serious crimes 
warranting joint surveillance and action. Requests 
for "extraordinarv pohce service" on campus 
"shall be made by the university president, or a 



48 



person designated by the president." The school 
will be billed for actual additional cost of such 
service. The River Falls police now go through 
the campus security department when they wish 
to contact a student (formerly they went to the 
residence hali director). (B/18/47). The River 
Falls police will go on campus only if the campus 
security force cannot handle a situation imaided. 
(B/18/-17). River Falls police have had riot 
control education, so that the three jurisdictions 
combined have considerable force to contribute 
toward quelling demonstrations. (B 18' 17). How- 
ever, in the past 4 years the River Falls police 
force has been called onto campus only once 
for an incident potentially more serious than 
a panty raid. (B/18/47). 

At Vi'hitewater, where the campus and the 
town are bisected by the Jefferson and Walworth 
County lines. Police Chief Simon expresses the 
view that he has responsibility for protection of 
WSU campus just as he does for other parts of 
the city. He is imaware of any precedent for 
seeking administrative clearance before going 
on campus to answer a call, whether it comes 
from a student or staff member. (C/17/'37). 
WSL-^ hitewater's December 1969 eruption was 
handled directly by Whitewater city police in 
the absence of a formal agreement or an impending 
formal agreement with the school. WSU-Oshkosh 
relied upon police in the surrounding communities 
in November 1968. (Whitewater and Oshkosh 
are discussed further in the next section.) 

Multiple jurisdictions 

The four WSU campuses visited are located 
within the incorporated limits of municipalities. 
Two of these municipalities lie completely within 
one county and two. River Falls and Whitewater, 
span two counties. Students on a WSU campus, 
like students on any campus, are subject to 
multiple overlays of authority. The campus, in 
theory at least, offers no refuge from Federal, 
State, or local laws. In addition, it will have its 
own system of norms developed for the institution 
and sometimes enforced for behavior occurring 
off campus or applied to reinforce the norm of 
another jurisdiction. Student behavior can result 
in disciplinary proceedings by the WSU unit, 
trial in municipal, county, or circuit (State) 
courts, or Federal agencies; these may follow 
investigation and apprehension by Vt .SU security 
personnel, municipal police, or county sherifTs 
deputies. 



The November 21, 1968, incident at WSU- 
Oshkosh is an example of student behavior which 
ultimately involved all of the jurisdictions men- 
tioned above. At 8:40 a.m. that day about 90 
black students entered Dempsey Hall on the 
university campus and massed outside the 
office of the president. About 40 surged into the 
president's individual office, in which he was 
present. . . . these 40 entered without invitation, 
prior appointment, or permission. The group 
presented the president with nonnegotiable Black 
Student Union demands and, upon his refusal 
to signify his acquiescence to the demands, 
occupied and committed some damage in his 
office. Three Oshkosh police officers, one of 
whom was a captain, arrived on the scene shortly 
after 9 a.m. They sought to disperse the crowd 
until about 11:45 a.m., by which time reenforce- 
ments had arrived and the students were advised 
they had 2 minutes in which to disperse or 
arrests would be made on charges of unlawful 
assembly. The students who refused to leave 
were arrested on charges of disorderly conduct 
and unlawful assembly and conveyed to jail. 
Thus the munici|)al police enforced State law 
to quell an unruly demonstration on campus. 
On Friday, November 22, the president decided 
to suspend certain students and on Monday, 
November 25, this intrusion of WSU-Oshkosh au- 
thority (derived from Wisconsin statute and 
Board of Regents by-laws) was made official by 
notices of suspension mailed to at least 67 
students. The notices included advice of the right 
to a hearing if requested within 10 days of receipt 
of the suspension notice. On December 6, the 
Board of Regents met and determined that the 
systemwide concern and the significance of 
suspending 80 percent of the black students 
enrolled on one WSU campus, plus the ex- 
traordinary burden of some 90 possible hearings 
and the procedural problem created by President 
Guile's formal role as final judge in cases involving 
behavior to which he was a material witness, 
warranted suspension of usual hearing procedures 
and retention by the board of a hearing agent. 
This hearing agent would hear all cases resulting 
from the November 21 incident and make 
findings of fact and recommendations to the 
board. Suspended students had by this time 
invoked Federal jurisdiction and Federal stand- 
ards of due process. In an opinion from which 
the foregoing description is drawn. Judge James 
E. Doyle of the Western District of Wisconsin, 



49 



on December 8, 1968, ordered reinstatement of 
the suspended students on December 11, unless 
and until hucIi lime as they were given notice of 
a lieariiig to \)i- held not later than December 16, 
1968. (Vicki Marzetlc v. Eugene R. McPhee, 294 
Fed. Supp. 562, W.D. Wis., 1968.) 

The hearing, which the hoard announced on 
December 6, was conducted within the time 
frame set by Judge Doyle. The board appointed 
a hearing ag(;nt, an assistant Slate attorney 
general prosecuted, and the students were 
defended by private counsel. Four students were 
suspended for the duration of the first semester 
and 90 students for the remainder of the school 
year. The disciplinary authority of WSU-Oshkosh 
and the WSU Syst(;m was thus vindicated. Sub- 
sequently, 91 of the students were prosecuted, 
convicted, and fined in the Third Circuit Court 
(the 3d Circuit emcompasses Calumet and 
Winnebago Counties, in the latter of which 
Oshkosh is located) on charges stemming from 
the November 21 arrests. State law enforcement 
authority was satisfied. Now the Federal authority 
was invoked once again, this time as a source 
of penalty. Various portions of Section 504 of the 
1968 amendments to the Federal Higher Educa- 
tion Act require that Federal financial assistance 
be denied for 2 years to students who have, after 
notice and hearing, been found guilty of disrupting 
the educational processes of colleges and uni- 
versities which they attend. The WSU Board 
of Regents sought and received interpretation 
of the Section 504 requirements from the ad- 
ministering agency. Office of Education, Depart- 
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, and 
from the Wisconsin attorney general. As a result 
the suspended students were determined in- 
eligible to receive Federal funds until December 
19, 1970. The Office of the Director of the WSU 
System reports that "10 of the students who were 
expelled and who were later readmitted were 
informed that they would be eligible for Federal 
student financial-aid funds starting December 
19, 1970. The students are attending Wisconsin 
State University-Oshkosh, and university ad- 
ministrators have found ways to provide financial 
aid for them pending completion of the 2 -year 
waiting period. The administrators have made 
arrangements to provide to the students on 
December 19, 1970, certain Federal funds for 
which they again will be eligible." (Letter from 
Robert J. Doyle, Assistant to the Director, WSl; 
Board of Regents, to George J. Pazik, Wisconsin 



Advisr^ry Committee, CCK, December 17, 1970.^ 
The Federal overlay of authority is thus nalislied. 
It is entirely consistent with the struclure of 
dislribut<-d authority in the Lnitcd .Statch thai 
one behavior should provide the (K-casion for 
multiple hearings and the administration of 
iiiiiltiple penalties by separate but in some waji- 
concurrent authority systems. It is widdv 
known that while the opportunity for application 
of overlay upon overlay of prfK-eeding and ■ 
penalty exists, some jurisdictions may forego 
application of a penalty where another has acted, i 
Indeed, some jurisdiciions relv upon others to I 
recognize the appropriateness of a penalty and 
apply it. The New York Times for October 14. 
1970, for example, carries a story rep<jrting un- 
haj)[)iness in some congressional circles with what j 
is taken to be exercise of too broad a discretion 
on the part of colleges and universities — amount- 
ing, indeed, to laxness — in applying the Section 
504 penalties to students. Schools reporting the 
largest number of students cut off from Federal 
aid were small institutions like Arkansas Agri- 
cultural, Mechanical and Normal College, which 
cut off aid to 38, and Florida Keys Junior College, 
which terminated aid to 39 students. The large 
schools, one source complained, seem to take no 
action. In a context in which schools choose not 
to enforce a Federal penalty and others choose 
to enforce it with vigor, it is obvious that 
elasticity of interpretation is being asserted by 
school administrators around the country. It 
would be reasonable to exercise any available 
discretion to avoid undue compounding of 
penalties on students who have already been 
amply punished. 

WSU-Whitewater offers a variation on the 
Oshkosh experience. On the night of December 
15-16, 1969, six persons were injured in two 
disturbances of a racial character, one of wliich 
occurred at an intramural basketball game on 
campus, and the other at the Phi Chi EpsUon 
fraternity house off campus. A rough, black-white 
basketball game at the Wilhams Gymnasium on 
campus was followed by a 10-minute scuffle in 
which blacks and whites, among yvhom Phi Chi 
Epsilon members were prominent, exchanged 
blows. Just as things calmed, a black girl was 
hit and a number of black girls were the object 
of remarks by while male students. At this 
point campus security and Whitewater municipal 
poUce arrived and the incident ended. Later 
that evening some 25 black students attended a 



50 



meeting at the Black Cultural Center. This was 
followed hv a black raid on the Phi Chi Kpsiloti 
liouse. Chiefly involved in the resultant fracas 
were members of the Phi Chi executive com- 
mittee, who were meeting in a general room on the 
first floor, and the black intruders. Some physical 
damage was done in the house, some injuries 
inflicted on fraternity members, and two shots 
were fired — presumably by a black student — from 
a .22 caliber hand gun. Municipal police had been 
apprehensive and were stationed in the im- 
mediate vicinity ready to cope with any incident. 
The black student exodus from the house co- 
incided with the arrival of the police, who are 
reported to have at first arrested students ap- 
prehended, and then to have released them and 
instructed them to leave the area. 

President Carter of ^'Sl -Whitewater called a 
news conference for 7 a.m., Tuesday, December 
16. He recited the events of the preceding evening 
and announced that although the police had 
made no arrests, 15 positive identifications had 
been made by fraternity members and police. 
The president called a general meeting of the 
faculty for 8:15 that morning and attempted to 
explain to the faculty what had occurred. At 
this meeting the faculty voted to create a faculty- 
student investigating committee to determine 
the facts of the December 15 16 incident, and 
the events leading up to them. This section of 
our report is based upon the report of the Faculty- 
Student Committee on Disturbances, created by 
President Carter on the authority of the faculty. 
It also draws upon the reporting of events in the 
student newspaper. The Royal Purple. 

Tuesday afternoon and Vi ednesday morning 
President Carter conducted closed hearings on 
14 black students accused of violating WSU 
rules. Two of these denied any involvement. 
Twelve, on advice of attorney, denied the allega- 
tions made against them. These 12 were suspended 
by President Carter until a general hearing could 
be held. As in the Oshkosh case, the decision 
was made to avoid the regular on-campus pro- 
cedures and facilities for handling disciplinary 
cases and resort to a specially appointed hearing 
agent. Kugene McPhee, director of the WSU 
System, appointed J. Ward Rector, former 
Wisconsin Supreme Court Justice, who had 
performed in like capacity for the Oshkosh 
hearings, to act as hearing officer. The assistant 
State's attorney general who had prosecuted at 
Oshkosh acted in like capacity for the Whitewater 



hearings, and the 14 students had private counsel. 
The WSL -\X hitcwater hearings were held in 
the county seat of KIkhorn. Hearings began 
in the Walworth County Courthduse on January 
5, and closed on January 23, 1970. The hearing 
officer made findings of fact and recommenda- 
tions, and President Carter framed the final 
decisions in the cases, expelling two of the 
students, suspending four for the duration of 
the 1969-70 school year, and suspending three 
until the beginning of the 1971-72 school year. 
Charges against two of the students were dis- 
missed during the hearing. 

Tlie president of Phi Chi Epsilon announced 
on December 17 the fraternity would file com- 
plaints against black students directly involved 
in the incident. The Royal Purple storv of 
December 18. 1969, reporting this, also reported: 
"District Attorney Robert Read maintained that 
no formal charges have been filed by the fra- 
ternity. However, he said he expects charges will 
be filed and warrants will be issued by Friday 
morning." Ten black students were arraigned on 
criminal charges in Walworth County Court on 
January 9, 1970, and separate hearings were 
scheduled for March. Subsequently these com- 
plaints were dismissed as defective. New com- 
plaints and warrants were issued and are out- 
standing at the time of writing, although none 
of the students has been brought to trial. 

President Carter informed Commission repre- 
sentatives that two of the students suspended 
as a result of the Phi Chi fracas have returned 
and been graduated. Three suspended students 
returned for the 1970-71 academic year. Carter 
apparently believes he has an agreement of sorts 
with the Walworth County District Attorney 
Robert Read whereby, as suspended students 
against whom warrants have been issued are 
accepted back on campus, the warrants will be 
held in suspense so long as the student remains 
in the good graces of the school. He informed 
Commission representatives visiting him on 
March 9, 1971, for example, that Jerry Quails, a 
suspended student, had just been readmitted, 
but upon returning had erroneouslv been picked 
up by Vt'hitewatpr police on a countv warrant, 
(barter evidence*! tl>e belief that, in talking with 
the district attornev concerning the three students 
readmitted in first semester 1970 71, the latter 
had agreed to a j)r<M-edure whereby returning 
students who were the subjects of outstanding 
warrants would check in at the Whitewater 



51 



police Htutioii and lli«T<-aii(;r lie cxcriiptol from 
arrest on the warrant. (C/4/9). The city of 
Wliitewatcr Police fihief Simon denies llial he 
is privy to any Mich arrangenieni, and insists 
so long as the warrants are outstanding he will 
arrest jjcrsons subject to them who come within 
his jurisdiction. (C/17/37). The university presi- 
dent saw the arrest of Quails as a mistake — an 
inadvertent breach of an agreement between 
campus and county justice officials. 

Here, then, is a situation in which students 
accused of violating WSU rules are tried before 
a hearing officer in a proceeding conducted in the 
county courthouse, with an assistant State's 
attorney general prosecuting — all this by way 
of framing findings and recommendations which 
will be presented to the school president for 
final action. The WSU-Whitewater jurisdiction 
is retained through focusing ultimate decisional 
responsibility upon its president; yet the process 
prior to that is very close to a State criminal 
process, even to its setting. Then, technically 
discrete and conducted at a separate level of 
jurisdiction, many of the same students who 
were subject to the disciplinary hearing are 
taken back to the same courthouse for trial 
before a county judge on charges brought by 
members of Phi Chi Epsilon. Neatly capping the 
supposedly separate proceedings, and making the 
tie explicit, is the president's understanding that 
the county warrants, used to reinforce discipline 



on lampiih. Kill Ik- mihpended at the dihcr<-tion 
of campus authority and on satisfactory behavior 
of the Hubje«!t. 

The CJ'Ai State Committee assumch tliai tin- 
professionalized campus securit) force which 
the WSl System is fostering on the nine campuseh 
will, in the future, function to pre\ent small 
incidents from escalating to the pro[Kjrtion» of 
FJIack Thursday and the F'hi Chi fraca". and thii- 
will liel[) avoid the kind of rinjltiple ovi-rkill 
which characterized oflficial response to these 
incidents. (It is true that the Phi Chi House 
at Whitewater is off-campus, but the altercation 
which preceded the attack on the house, and the 
planning of it, occurred on campus.) Additi'inally, 
academic administrators should use the numerr.us 
formal and informal means available to them 
toward removing the provocations to such 
incidents. If, in the future, it is necessary to call 
upon off-campus assistance, WSU oiBcials should 
similarly employ formal and informal means 
to eliminate the compounding of proceedings and 
penalties which were provoked by the militant 
behavior of black students. The Oshkosh and 
Whitewater cases lend reality to black impressions 
of an interlocking white elite running an establish- 
ment which is cohesive enough to act in unit\. 
and divided enough to permit the imposition of 
multiple penalties upon groups of blacks whose 
behavior has affronted the "system". 



52 



FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 



The Wisconsin State Committee, after evaluat- 
ing the information received during its 11-month 
study of the Wisconsin State Universities System, 
reports the following findings, with corresponding 
recommendations: 



The need to increase minority enrollment 

Finding 1. — While 85 out of every 100 
WSU students come from Wisconsin fam- 
ilies, r>\ out of everv 100 minority students 
enrolled at WSU's come from other States 
or abroad. Measured by enrollment data, 
the ^ SU System commitment to educating 
minority students is chiefly a commitment 
to international and out-of-State minority 
students. 

Recommendation 1. — The WSU System 
should maintain at least the present 
number of out-of-State and international 
black students while enlarging the number 
of Wisconsin black students to bring the 
ratio to 85 percent Wisconsin residents and 
15 percent out-of-State and international. 
This quadrupling of Wisconsin black stu- 
dents in the WSU System would raise the 
enrollment from six-tenths of 1 percent to 
2 percent. It should be regarded as a first 
step, to be followed within a year by a 
further increase to bring the Wisconsin 
black student enrollment at least to the 
ratio of Wisconsin's black population 



(2.90 percent). 



Increased minority enrollment rate 

Finding 2. — The Wisconsin Coordinating 
Council for Higher Education (CCIIK) in 
1969 projected WSU enrollments will in- 
crease from the present 60 percent of 
projected capacity to about 100 percent 
by 1980. 



Recommendation 2. — The new level of 
black enrollment should serve as a base 
for further acceleration of black enroll- 
ment to more than keep pace with this 
development. 



Erratic distribution of black students in 
WSU System 

Finding 3. — Recruitment of Wisconsin 
minority students — and more specifically 
Milwaukee's blacks — to WSU institutions 
has been a result of an active talent search 
by HEAD and MEOC, conducted with 
Federal support, ad hoc initiatives on a 
few of the WSU campuses, and accidental 
geography. 

A passive central administration, com- 
bined with local administrators and facul- 
ties which sometimes encourage, some- 
times are indifferent to, or actively dis- 
courage minority enrollment, accounts for 
the extremely uneven pattern of minority 
student distribution on the nine WSU 
campuses. 

Recommendation 3a. — In a period of 
rising and stimulated black enrollment, 
the WSU System should develop incentives 
to local administrators and to prospective 
black students toward accomplishing a 
more rational distribution of black students 
on the nine WSU campuses. 

Recommendation 3b. — MEOC's talent 
search program should be enlarged and 
strengthened. MEOC should advise the 
department of public instruction on 
strengthening high school curricula and 
instruction, and should participate in 
planning on campus orientation and scho- 
lastic help programs. 



53 



Each of the nine WSU's as a statewide fa- 
cility 

Recommendalion 4a. — The Governor and 
the Board of Regents should make explicit 
the policy that each of the Wisconsin 
State Universities serves all of the State of 
Wisconsin. This in no way derogates from 
the WSU role as commuter schools for 
surrounding counties. Present tendencies 
toward avoiding redundancy and building 
some program specialization among the 
nine institutions are consistent with this 
policy. 

Milwaukee representation on WSU regents 

Recommendation 4b. — Consistent with 
this recommendation, we recommend an 
amendment to Wisconsin Statutes to 
require that one member of the board of 
regents of the Wisconsin State Universities 
be appointed from the city of Milwaukee. 
Membership on the Board of Regents 
should reflect minority group representa- 
tion. 

End tradition of local regent control 

Recommendation 4c. — We further recom- 
mend that the Statutes be amended to 
clarify the collective responsibility of 
the regents for supervising the administra- 
tion of the entire WSU System and the 
impropriety of individual regents develop- 
ing administrative and supervisory rela- 
tionships to a specific one of the WSU 
institutions. 

High school preparation 

Finding 5. — The uniform finding of 
students, faculty, and administrators is 
that a large part of the scholastic problem 
of black students on campus is inadequate 
preparation. 

Recommendation 5. — The Department 
of Public Instruction, in cooperation with 
the Higher Educational Aids Board, should 
be assigned responsibiUty (and provided 
funding) to review counseling and cur- 
riculum in high schools in low-income 



areas (definr-fl by census tracts; to assure 
that the high schrxjls are not, in practice, 
vehicles for thwarting development of 
rollcge ambitions in youths from low- 
income familii;s. 

The superintendent of public instruction, 
again cooperating with HKAH and its 
Milwaukee Educational (opportunity Cen- 
ter offices, and aided by requisite funding, 
should helf) such high schools develop 
adequate counseling and curriculum to as- 
sure students ample opportunity to under- 
stand the comparative advantages of post- 
high school work in a vocational school or 
college, and prepare for it. 

Retention 

Finding 6. — The WSU's which attract 
minority students have thus far shown 
little concern for their survival prospects. 
Estimates by authoritative sources place 
dropout rates for black students as high 
as 80 percent. The tendency has been to 
assume the school has discharged its full 
responsibility in admitting minoritv stu- 
dents and providing them access to higher 
education facilities. If the student cannot 
make it, that is his concern. 

Recommendation 6. — Sustained concern 
must be shown for retention as well as 
recruitment of black students. The objec- 
tive must be a 90 percent black student 
retention rate. 

Scholastic survival kits 

Finding 7. — The WSU's visited have 
fairly relaxed procedures for admitting 
minority students, and are quite outgoing 
and sympathetic in making allowances for 
personal, social, and economic factors 
which might cause late or somewhat 
irregular apphcation for admission and 
for financial aid. However, these somewhat 
casual attitudes — which constitute per- 
missiveness when appUed to admissions — 
persist following the point of admission. 
This has caused black students and in- 
terested faculty to charge that the aca- 
demic needs of black students are neglected. 



54 



Recommendation 7. — Wisconsin's minor- 
ity youth needs scholastic survival kits 
and systematic help in using them. Such 
programs can best be developed on the 
WSU campuses, with system leadership 
and budget aid, and with minority student 
partici[)ation. These programs should in- 
clude at least the elements contained in 
the following four recommendations, that 
is, recommendations 8, 9, 10, and 11. 

Orientation 

Findinfi 8. — Asscmbh -line mass regis- 
tration, which is irritating and disad- 
vantageous to all students, can be destruc- 
tive to the survival prospects of new black 
students. The result of the process is 
likely to be a course schedule which is 
practicable at best for the modal student, 
but emphatically dysfunctional for the 
new entrant from Milwaukee's core. 

Recommendation 8. — In August 1970 
^ SL-Oshkosh experimented with a 2-week 
orientation program designed to meet the 
needs of academically deficient students 
entering their freshman year. We recom- 
mend that all nine WSU's adopt similar 
programs, coupling orientation with pre- 
registration under circumstances permit- 
ting individual attention to the needs of 
each student. For the program to be 
successful, it is mandatorv that financial 
support be provided to enable needy 
students to participate. This could be a 
vital part of an academic survival kit 
for minority students. 

Minority counseling 

Finding 9n. — Special counseling for black 
students, insofar as it is available, is a 
hit-or-miss, part-time affair. Black staff 
particularly chafe at the need to treat a 
traditional job description as a distracting 
subterfuge which makes it possible to do a 
little where much is required. Where black 
staff has been recruited to deal in part, at 
least, with the problems of black students 
on campus, the staff feels harried and lost 
in an ill-designed hierarchy. 



Finding 9b. — Black students express lack 
of confidence that there is any one person 
on campus to whom they can go with the 
certainty of receiving understanding and 
sensitive help on a broad spectrum of 
problems. Orientation, catalogs, and rule 
books do not tell the black students all 
they need to know. They sense the need of 
someone available to help them understand 
and cope with "the system", dealing with 
such problems as a course schedule into 
which a student has been shunted but 
which he is convinced he cannot handle, 
or a computer which a student thinks is 
spitting out F's when it should be re- 
porting incompletes or a passing grade. 
Students complain that they have never 
heard of counseling, that counseling is too 
procedure or rule-book oriented, that it is 
just inadequate — not discriminatory, just 
not enough. 

They want someone who will search out 
problems as well as listen to those brought 
to him, someone who has a broad discretion 
to go to the source of a problem and do 
something about it. This would be a broad 
and ranging jurisdiction, impinging upon 
the jurisdictions of numerous other au- 
thorities, and requiring access to high 
officialdom on campus, and perhaps in 
town and at the county and State level. 

Recommendation 9. — Minority students 
require the full-time guidance and support 
of a faculty member-administrator, with a 
rank equivalent to dean, who is able to 
arrange scholastic testing, tutoring, and 
remedial work for academically deficient 
students, introduce minoritv students to 
the ways of the college bureaucracy, and 
act as an intermediary for students with 
officialdom on campus and in town. It is 
essential that such positions be budgeted 
for all WSU's to plan for impending 
large-scale minority student enrollment 
and serve the students adequately when 
they come. 

Remedial work and tutoring 

Finding 10. — The public policy which 
causes schools to accept academically 



55 



deficient students is not matched at present 
by a policy and effective program for 
remedial work and tutorinj; to lielp such 
students. Thus, the hberal admission policy 
becomes a travesty. 

RecommendaUon 10. — Each WSU should 
establish remedial course work for a limited 
number of basic courses. Tutoring is an 
appropriate adjunct to remedial course 
work, and persons who have ha<l remedial 
work might be watched to determine their 
need for possible tutoring in other courses 
taken simultaneously or following remedial 
work. 



Hrrommfndaliori 12. The Committee 
recomm<-nd» that UKAB's authority be 
enlarged to pi-rmit it to act at; an ofTir<'r on 
behalf of the VISL'h. tailoring aid pa<'kages 
to meet student n»!edK and advising mi- 
nority students on the d«;veloping distribu- 
tion of newly entering and returning mi- 
nority students on the )X'.SL' eampusfs. 
Thus uniformity in applying the formula 
for administering fmanrial aid would be 
accomplished, and an important step takr-n 
toward achieving greater diffusion of minor- 
ity students among the WSU campuses. 



Curriculum 

Finding 11. — Black students complain 
that many courses in which their culture 
and history should be relevant treat the 
subject matter of the course in a parochially 
white manner. They assert that one can 
secure a liberal arts education at a WSU 
without ever learning that American life 
has a black dimension. 

Recommendation 11. — When the black 
experience is relevant to course content, 
the readings, lectures, and discussions 
should include it. Literature, sociology, 
history, and political science courses are 
obvious candidates for examination to 
determine whether accuracy, balance, and 
completeness require more or less detailed 
reference to the contribution and experience 
of black people. 

Higher Educational Aids Board as central 
administering agency for financial aid 

Finding 12. — The Higher Educational 
Aids Board at present acts as a conduit for 
moving information and financial aid 
applications to high schools, collecting and 
examining the applications for accuracy 
and completeness, and passing them on 
the institutions designated by the appli- 
cants. Financial aid offers, in the form of 
packets of grants, loans, and employment, 
are framed and administered by local WSU 
financial officers. 



Grants and student employment rather than 
loans to low-income students 

Finding 13. — A substantial amount of 
the aggregate financial aid administered 
takes the form of Federal and State loans. 
The individual student receives an aid 
package which is calculated to meet his 
need, and that package includes loan as 
well as grant monev. 

Administrators and students complain 
of the practice of recruiting minority 
students, encouraging them to overcome 
social, economic, and academic obstacles 
and embark upon an academic journey 
which is inherently risky, and then forcing 
such students into financing a considerable 
part of the cost through loans. 

The successful student may pile up a 
financial obligation which will depress his 
life style for years after graduation; the 
unsuccessful student drops out, or is 
dropped, and keeps a substantial debt as 
memento of the experience. The need 
to finance the enterprise through an aid 
package, including a large segment of 
borrowing, deters some minoritv students 
from enrolling. 

Recommendation 13. — The Committee 
recommends that administrative action be 
taken as soon as possible and legislation 
be enacted as needed to make it possible 
to administer financial aid to low-income 
students in the form of grants and em- 
ployment without entailing loans. 



56 



Deposits, late fees, penalties 

Finding 7-/. Particularly galling to 
financially aided students is the tendency 
of academic administrators, who use de- 
posits, late fees, etc. as techniques for 
disciplining students to desired behavior, 
to apply such checking devices in ways 
which extract, in the form of deposit or 
penally, funds granted or loaned toward 
the ostensible end of meeting the student's 
financial need. 

Recommendation 14. — Financial -aid pack- 
ages to needy students should be so ad- 
ministered as to maximize accounting 
transfers where aid money is to be used to 
discharge obligations to the school. De- 
posits, late fees, and penalties should be 
waived and not permitted to encumber 
financial aid fimds. 

Employment 

Finding IS. — The nine WSU's have zero 
to insignificant employment of black 
personnel in all of the areas in which the 
CCR Wisconsin State Committee in- 
quired: counseling, tutoring, financial aids, 
security, athletic staff, and faculty in gen- 
eral. 

Minority group students are denied equal 
access to State supported educational 
facilities when thev attend schools which, 
because of institutional constraints or lack 
of an active recruitment program, have 
virtually no minority representation on 
the staff. 

Recommendation I5a. Counseling. — It is 
important that staff counseling blacks 
have close rapport and represent black 
professional achievement. Black profes- 
sionals must be recruited to participate in 
counseling and remedial jirograms. 

Recommendation 1.5b. Financial aids. — 
Much apprehension and nascent resent- 
ment which black stu<l<'nts experience in 
approaching the financial aids office would 
be lifted were they to see at least one black 
staff member and we recommend a vigorous 
effort to recruit blacks to financial aid 
staffs. 



Recommendation 15c. Athletic depart- 
ments. — The lack of black staff members in 
athletic departments is startlingly evident. 
The WSU System should make every 
effort to attract coaches and physical 
education specialists to its campuses. 

Recommendation 15d. Housing. — We 
know of no instance where a WSU campus 
has employed a bla<-k housing director, or 
hall director. The record on employment 
of blacks as residence assistants is mixed. 
The Wisconsin Committee recommends 
that the WSU increase minority participa- 
tion in employment in the field of housing. 

Recommendation /.5e. Campus secitritv. — 
The WSU campus security forces are in 
process of enlargement and professionaliza- 
tion. The Committee recommends that 
efforts be made to recruit black police 
science graduates to the security force. 

Recommendation l.'if. Faculty. — The high- 
est ratio of black faculty on any campus is 
1 percent. Sixteen black faculty are em- 
ployed in the entire AX'SU System. Budg- 
etary, hiring, tenure, and market conditions 
are offered as reasons for this appallingly 
low ratio. We recommend that extraor- 
dinary efforts be made to find and attract 
competent black faculty. 

On-campus housing 

Finding 16. — Black students resent any 
hint of forced clustering, and may take 
chance concentration of blacks in a housing 
facility as confirmation of a policy of 
segregation. Black students appear in- 
clined to cluster if permitted to follow 
their own preferences and resent ad- 
ministrative practices which prevent them 
from rooming together. They object, in 
short, to either compulsory segregation or 
compulsory integration. To see a logical 
anomaly in this position would be rather 
shallow. Certainly it expresses a degree 
of individualism with which administra- 
tors should be able to live. 

Recommendation 16. — WSU administra- 
tors should be encouraged to face, with 
equanimity and tolerance, the reasonable 



57 



desire of black sludcnls not to h<- com- 
pelled either to live together or aj)arl from 
fellow blacks. All reasonable housing re- 
quests which do not impinge upon and 
narrow the freedoms of others should 
receive serious consideration and sym- 
pathetic response. 

Donnitory rules 

Finding 17. — Black dormitory residents 
are conscious of patterns of behavior and 
usage of the dormitory facilities which 
set them apart from their white fellow 
residents. These seem to grate upon the 
latter. Some hall directors aj)pear disturbed 
by the behavior of black students, or 
hostile to them. 

Recommendation 17. — Dormitory rules 
should relate to personal safety and build- 
ing maintenance, not to enforcing any- 
particular set of cultural mores. 

OfT-campus housing 

Finding 18a. — The WSU's continue to 
maintain housing lists for the convenience 
of students and landlords, and appear 
ready to remove landlords from the list 
if they discriminate. When discrimination 
is called to the attention of housing officials 
they may make direct efforts to find a 
black student a room. 



Minority staff housing 

Finding 18b. — Black staff have trouble 
in locating housing. If they have secured 
housing, it has been as a result of subterfuge 
and pressure. Or they may commute con- 
siderable distances from cities in which 
housing is available to minorities to the 
WSU town of employment. The officials 
of the WSU host communities do not place 
fair housing high on their agenda for 
action. They do seem concerned about the 
quality of housing offered students in 
town. Attempts by the WSU's to alter 
community mores on housing and public 
accommodations would require direct and 



sustained personal leadership bv tfi'- presi- 
dentH. The presidents of the schools rfaim 
to recognize the problem. They restrict 
their involvement to expressions of per- 
sonal concern, exhortation, creating com- 
mittees which bridge town and gown, and 
sponsoring public events at which expres- 
sions of mutual regard and pleas for 
"human understanding" are part of the 
program, all of which have been in- 
effectual. 

Recommendation 18. — WSL presidents 
should take the lead in mobilizing campus 
and host city support for fair housing 
codes in the host city, and then in assuring 
effective administration of such codes 
when enacted. 

Athletics 

Finding 19. — Black students are con- 
vinced that most phases of athletics on 
the WSU campus are hostile to them. 
This is a general indictment to which very 
few exceptions were made by students in- 
terviewed. On three of the four campuses, 
the athletic department was seen as housing 
the most raciallv biased facultv members on 
campus. 

Recommendation 19. — Recruitment of 
black athletes should be one element in 
a massive deed, rather than word, oriented 
effort on the part of WSU athletic depart- 
ments to enlist the confidence of black 
students. 



Community relations programs 

Finding 20. — Black students feel they are 
regarded as intruders in the WSU host 
communities. The record clearly tells a 
storv of lack of will, skill, or sense of 
appropriateness to develop a vigorous 
program of campus-community relations 
under the aegis of the WSL. and having 
among its purposes the acculturation of 
the communitv to American minority 
group students. 

WSU officials are reluctant to use their 
influence in the communitv. As the chief 



58 



local industry, they believe the local com- 
munity is sensitive to and resentful of 
WSU pressure. 

Recommendation 20. — Each WSU should 
develop a vigorous community relations 
program having the purpose of enhancing 
good relations between the host com- 
munity and all of the segments of the 
varied student bodv on campus. Bv 
definition, each ^X'SU student body will 
be strange and somewhat alien to the 
population and mores of the host com- 
munit\ and it is the responsibility of the 
individual WSU's, with central stimula- 
tion and funding from the regent's office 
in Madison, to make these qualities a 
positive rather than negative factor in 
WSU-communitv relations. 



Treatment by merchants 

I'indinfi 21. — All eyes are on the black, 
student when he shops. Black students 
resent the close surveillance and dis- 
courteous service they receive when they 
shop. Restaurants and bars frequently 
treat them shabbily. 

Recommendation 21. — WSU's, host city 
public officials, chambers of commerce, 
and student leaders should develop pro- 
grams for assuring that local merchants 
adhere to fair and equal standards in 
dealing with students, regardless of cultural 
and ethnic differences. Students and the 
ViSU's should, for this [)urpose at least, 
make their economic power felt in the 
host citv. 



Campus security 

Finding 22.— \ well trained WSU 
campus securitv, versetl in human and 
race relations, can be an effective force for 
preventing small incidents from escalating 
into large disturbances which require 
off-campus police. We presume this is a 
purpose the WSU System administration 
has in mind for the campus security forces, 
as they grow and modernize. 



Recommendation 22. — Campus security 
forces should be trained in techniques and 
briefed on their responsibility to recognize 
and be catalysts for reducing the intensity 
and scope of incipient violence on campus. 

Impartial police procedures 

Finding 23. — An important and wide- 
spread black student complaint, and one 
which underlies their pt-rception that they 
do not receive equal treatment from local 
police, is thgt white complaints against 
blacks are treated as presunipiivelv valid, 
and black students are questioned in an 
atmosphere which accepts that presump- 
tion. Black complaints against whites are 
treated by the police with skepticism. 
When police are called to deal with a 
conflict situation involving blacks and 
whites, the police invariably talk first with 
the white students involved. This implies 
that the white students are the authorita- 
tive or reliable source of information. 

Recommendation 23. — P()lice should 
maintain strict imparlialitv in dealing with 
interracial complaints, and should treat 
minority students — all students — with the 
courtesy to which citizens are entitled. 

Equal protection violation 

Finding 24. — I'he single, outstanding 
example of differential treatment of black 
students by local police is a practice 
complained of at Plattville. There the 
blacks intensely resent, and Chief of 
Police Mellor readily admits, the practice 
of taking black students arrested by the 
police to the jail in Lancaster, the county 
seat. Any arrested person k<'pt longer than 
overnight is transferred to Lancaster. But 
white students arrest4'd and kept overnight 
arc held in Platleville, whereas black 
students arrested and held overnight are 
dis[)atched to Lancaster. 

Recommendation 24. — Constitutional 
standards mandate equal treatment of 
white and minority students apprehended 
by police. The Plattevilie Police Deparl- 



59 



meiit should desist from this practice of 
(liff<T<'ntia! treatment ir.imedialely and 
within a reasonalile lime lh(^ State at- 
torney general's office should make inquiry 
to determine that the practice has hecn 
(hseontinued. 



Multiple jurisdictions and multiple penalties 
for students 

Finding 25. — Students on a WSU 
campus, like students on any campus, are 
suhject to multiple overlays of authority. 
The campus, in theory at least, offers no 
refuge from Federal, State, or local laws. 
In addition, it will have its own system of 
norms developed for the institution and 
sometimes enforced for behavior occurring 
off -campus or applied to reinforce the norm 
of another jurisdiction. Student behavior 
can result in disciplinary proceedings by 
the WSU unit, trial in municipal, county, 
or circuit (State) courts, or Federal agencies; 
these may follow investigation and ap- 
prehension by WSU security personnel, 
municipal police, or county sheriff's 
deputies. 

Recommendation 25. — The WSU institu- 
tions and regents should seek to avoid 
multiple penalties for the same offense 
which accomplish the effect of double 
jeopardy even though avoiding its tech- 
nical commission. 



Congressional penalties 

Finding 26. — The Higher Education 
Amendments of 1968 (P.L. 90-575 82 Stat. 
1014) provide a method for adding, as a 
penalty to other penalties inflicted upon 
demonstrating students, a 2-year ineligibil- 
ity for Federal educational aid funds. This 



provision is erratically invoker! 1j\ Irxal 
authorities around the country. 

liecommt'nddlion 26. (Jongress should 
amend Section 504- of the Higher Kduca- 
tion Act Amendments of 1968 to make 
clear that this penalty should be ad- 
ministered only when not conjoined with 
other penalties locally administered: also, 
initiating a))|ilii'ation of the penalty should 
be vested in HKW, not in the local institu- 
tions as is done at present. 

Institutional racism 

Finding 27. — If the proportion of black 
faculty and staff at a college is infinitesimal 
and if faculty and administrative interest 
in recruiting black faculty is absent, 
sporadic, or curbed by institutional con- 
straints such as budget limitations or hiring 
rules, the low level of black employment 
may reasonably be taken as prima facie 
evidence of discrimination. It is discrimina- 
tion by lack of effort, covert rather than 
overt. 

The proportion of black faculty and 
students on the nine WSU campuses is 
appallingly low. We conclude that efforts 
by the various institutions to recruit and 
hold black students and faculty have been 
sufficiently passive, desultory, or curbed 
by institutional constraints, and have 
sufficiently lacked central stimulus from 
the system administrators in Madison, as 
to warrant the charge of institutional 
racism and denial of equal access to pubhc 
educational faciUties against the WSU 
System. 

Recommendation 27. — The preceding rec- 
ommendations are designed to rectify the 
institutional racist conditions which the 
Committee has found to exist in the WSU 
System. 



60 



APPENDICES 



APPENDIX A 



WSU & UWM Enrollment, Employment, and County Population Data by School 



Table A.l 

WSU-PLATTEVILLE 
WSU Enrollment and Employment Compared to Host County Population, 1970 





WSU 








Enrollment 


Employment 


Grant 
County 




Administration 


Faculty 


other 






% 


No. 


To 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


White 


98.33 

1.28 

.38 


4,135 
54 
16 


1.0 


13 
3 





297 






247 




99.55 
.14 
.29 


48.184 


Black 

Other minority '■ 


72 
142 


Total 




4,205 
















48.398 























' American Indian, Spanish Surname, Oriental. 

Sources: Enrollment — HEW OCR report; employment — WIS. CCR SAC survey: population — census. 

Note: SAC asked for employment under a large number of categories including administrations, faculty by rank, 
admissions office employees (administrative and clerical separated), maintenance, etc. Faculty ranks have been collapsed, 
admissions office eliminated, and maintenance, etc., dubbed "other" and not subjected to analysis. 



62 



1 



Table A. 2 

WSU-WniTE\^ .4TER 
WSU Enrollment and Employment Compared to Host County Population, 1970 





WSU 








Enrollment 


Employment 


Walworth 
County 




Administration 


Faculty 


other 






% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


White 


97.45 
1.29 
1.25 


8,295 
110 
107 


4.9 


23 
P 



.56 
1.3 


526 
3 

7 


.74 


134 


1 


99.10 
.45 
.43 


62,879 
287 


Black 


Other minority 


278 


Total 




8,512 
















63,444 





















Sources: Enrollment — HE\\' OCR report; employment — WIS. OCR SAC survey; population — census. 
' This iigure is included in faculty category. 



Table A. 3 

WSU-OSHKOSH 
WSU Enrollment and Employment Compared to Host County Population, 1970 





WSU 








Enrollment 


Employment 


Winnebago 

County 
population 




Administration 


Faculty 


other 






% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


White 


98.82 
.74 
.43 


9,413 
71 
41 


11.7 


15 

2 



4.4 

2.72 


394 

2 
11 





ND 
ND 
ND 


99.48 
.11 
.39 


129,266 
146 
519 


Black 

Other minority 

1 

' Total 




9,525 
















129,931 























Sources: Enrollment — HEW OCR report; employment — WIS. CCR SAC survey; population — census. 



I 



63 



Table A. 4 

WSU-RIVER FALLS 

WSU Enrollment and Employment Compared to Host County Population, 1970 





W8U 








Enrollment 


Employment 


Pierce 

County 

population 




Administration 


Faculty 


other 






% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


c; *^fj 


White 


98.10 

1.31 

.58 


3,518 
47 
21 




12 





.44 
2.21 


220 

1 
5 


1.33 


148 


2 


99.52 26.526 


Black 

Other minority 


.16 
.30 


44 

82 


Total 




3,586 
















26,652 























Sources: Enrollment — HEW OCR report; employment — WIS. CCR SAC survey, population — census. 



Table A..? 

WSU- STOUT STATE 

WSU Enrollment and Employment Compared to Host County Population. 1970 





WSU 








EnroUment 


Employment 


Dunn 

County 
population 




Administration 


Faculty 


other 






% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


White 


98.57 

1.07 

.35 


4,492 
49 
16 




21 




.75 


262 

2 




338 




99.38 
.19 
.41 


28,976 


Black 

Other minority 


57 
121 


Total 




4,557 
















29.154 























Sources: Enrollment — HEW OCR report; employment — WIS. CCR SAC survey; population — census. 



64 



Table A. 6 

WSU-STEVENS POINT 

WSU Enrollment and Employment Compared to Host County Population, 1970 





WSU 








Enrollment 


Employment 


Portage 

County 

population 




Administration 


Faculty 


other 




% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


While 

Black.. 


99.40 
.15 
.43 


7,725 
12 
34 




16 




.22 
2.5 


428 

1 

11 




ND 
ND 
ND 


99.45 
.15 
.38 


47,283 

75 

183 


Other minority 


Total 




7,771 
















47,541 





















Sources: Enrollment— HEW OCR report; employment— WIS. CCR SAC survey; population- 



Table A. 7 

WSU- SUPERIOR 

WSU Enrollment and Employment Compared to Host County Population, 1970 





WSU 






Enrollment 


Employment 


Douglas 

County 

population 


Administration 


Faculty 


other 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


White 


97.39 

.62 

1.97 


4,181 

27 
85 




8 




1.21 


163 

2 




158 




98.98 
.19 
.81 


+4,203 

89 

365 


Black .. 


Other minority 

Total 




4,293 
















44,657 





















Sources: Enrollment— HEW OCR report; employment— WIS. CCR SAC survey; population— census 



65 



Table A. 8 

WSU-LA CROSSE 
WSU Enrollment and Employment Compared to Host County Population, 1970 





W8U 




4 




Enrollment 


Employment 


LsCroae 

County 

population 




Administration 


Faculty 


other 






% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


White 


98.-13 

.51 

1.04 


5,163 
27 
55 




29 




.32 
1.31 


300 
1 
4 




ND 
ND 
ND 


99.56 
.08 
.35 


8,014 


Black 

Other minority 


TO 
284 


Total 




5,245 
















80,468 























Sources: Enrollment — HEW OCR report; employment — WIS. CCR SAC survey; population — census. 



Table A.9 

WSU-EAU CLAIRE 

WSU Enrollment and Employment Compared to Host County Population, 1970 





WSU 








Enrollment 


Employment 


Eau Claire 

County 
population 




Administration 


Faculty 


other 




% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


.N'o. 


White 

Black 

Other minority 


98.37 
.69 
.95 


7,078 
50 
67 




13 




.79 
2.37 


367 
3 
9 


.52 


189 


1 


99.47 
.14 
.37 


66.865 
100 
254 


Total 




7,195 
















67,219 




















Sources: Enrollment 

66 


—HEW 0( 


DR report; 


employm 


ent— Wl 


[S. CCR 


SACsur 


vey; pop 


ulation- 


-census. 





Table A. 10 
WSU Enrollment and Employment Compared to Host County Population, 1970 





wsu 






» 


Enrollment 


Employment 


.Milwaukee 

County 
population 


Administration 


Faculty 


other 






% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


While 


95.58 

3.56 

.85 


11,647 
434 
104 




ND 
ND 
ND 




ND 
ND 
ND 




ND 
ND 
ND 


89.17 

10.05 

.70 


939,989 


Black 

Oilier minority 


106,033 
8,041 


Total 




12,185 
















1,054,063 























Sources: EnroUment — HEW OCR report; employment — WIS. GCR SAC survey; population — census. 



67 



APPENDIX B 

Analysis of Discrepancy Between Minority Students Reported to 
HEW OCR and to CCR WIS. SAC 



Differences between data reported tc» CCR 
WIS. SAC and HEW OCR 

HEW OCR instructed reporting schools to list students 
under six categories: American Indian, black. Oriental, 
Spanish Surnamed American, all other students, and 
total all students. The schools were further instructed: 
"Do not include foreign students studying in the United 
States under a student or temporary visa in any of the 
four minority group categories. Do include them in the 
all other students column." 

The Commission on Civil Rights employed the same 
four minority categories, but asked for a breakdown 
within each category as follows: Wisconsin residents, 
all other U.S. students (reported as out-of State in this 
report), and foreign students. In addition to these four, 
the Commission employed an "all other" category which 
would be, in effect, all U.S. and foreign students not 
fitting into the minority categories. 

The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 
focused on the Nation and the Commission on a single 
State; this helps to explain their differing approaches to 
data gathering. HEW and CCR asked for the execution 
of similar but distinct reports at varying times in the 
same school year. Insofar as their categories varied, the 
data would, of course, be differently arrayed in the reports 
received. But the two agencies used some identical cate- 
gories, and significant variance was found in the data 
reported to the two agencies for the same categories. 
That is the subject of this appendix. 

As noted on table 1.2 in part 1 of this report, WSU- 
Platteville and WSU-Whitewater, in their report to CCR, 
lumped all international minority students, rather than 
distributing them as requested. We have distributed the 
Platteville and Whitewater minority international students 
among minority groupings proportionately to the distribu- 
tion reported by the seven other schools. This operation 
probably accounts for some of the problems discussed 
later concerning the reporting of Whitewater Oriental 
students. (We also distributed Oshkosh American minority 
students by Wisconsin resident and out-of-State categories 
proportionately as reported by the other eight colleges. 
However, no such breakdown is employed in appendix 
B and this operation does not affect the present analysis.) 
The American Indian and Spanish Surnamed categories — 
as a review of tables B.l and B.2 will show — do not 



reflect sufficient variance in the numbers reported to 
CCR and HEW to warrant analysis. We confine oar 
analysis, therefore, to black and Oriental students. 

Tables B.l and B.2 show that the nine WSU's cumula- 
tively reported to the Commission on Civil Rights 18 
more black Americans enrolled than they reported to 
Health, Education, and Welfare. In three out of the 
nine reports (Platteville, River Falls, Stevens Point) 
CCR and HEW received identical data. In four instances 
(Whitewater, Oshkosh, Stout, Eau Claire) CCR received 
reports in excess of those submitted to HEW, totalling 
29 students. In two instances (Superior, La Crosse), 
totalling 11 students, fewer were reported to CCR than 
to HEW. Thus, reporting variances in the amount of 
■to students result in a net WSU System difference of 18 
more American black students reported to CCR than 
to HEW. 

The category Oriental shows considerable variance 
of reporting to CCR and HEW. Reporting variances 
in the amount of 198 occur in the systemwide reporting 
to CCR and HEW under this category. Because, in five 
instances (Whitewater, Oshkosh, Superior, La Crosse, 
Eau Claire) higher numbers were reported to HEW, 
and in three instances (River Falls, Stout State, and 
Stevens Point) higher numbers were reported to CCR 
(Platteville, as adjusted by CCR, reported identical 
numbers to each agency), the svstemwide variemce netted 
184. 

An explanation which comes quickly to mind is 
that some schools inadvertently included some inter- 
national students in the minority categories in their 
reports to HEW, contrary to instruction to report the 
under "all other". If, in each instance in which HEW 
received a higher report of black students or Orientals 
than the number of American black or American Orientals 
reported to CCR, we found that the difference approxi- 
mated the number of international black and international 
Oriental students reported to CCR, we might reasonably 
infer that the mistake described above had occurred. 

Table B.3 is designed to facilitate this comparisoa 
Looking to this table, we find one instance in which HEl 
received a significantly higher report of American blacli 
students than did CCR. In this instance, at WSU-Superior 
where (see table B.l) 10 fewer American blacks wen 
reported to CCR than to HEW, 12 international blacl 
students were reported to CCR. We cannot make ai 



68 



Table B.l 
Comparison of CCR WIS. SAC and HE\^' OCR Data on WSU American Minority Enrollment 



Platte ville: 

CCR 

HEW 

DifTcrence. 

W liitcwuter: 

CCR 

HEW 

Difference. 

Oshkosh : 

CCR 

HEW 

Difference. 

River Falls: 

CCR 

HEW.... 
Difference. 

Stout State: 

CCR 

HEW.... 
Difference 

Stevens Point: 

CCR 

HEW.... 
Difference 

Superior: 

CCR 

HEW.... 
Difference 

La Cros.se: 

CCR 

HEW.__. 
Difference 

Eau Claire: 

CCR 

HEW..._ 
Difference 



Black 



54 

54 



122 

110 

12 

83 
71 
12 

47 

47 


52 

49 

3 

12 

12 



17 
27 
10 

26 

27 
1 

52 

50 

2 



American 
Indian 



2 
2 


6 
5 
1 

26 

25 

1 

14 

14 



9 
9 


26 

26 



16 

15 

1 

7 
7 


23 

20 

3 



Oriental 



7 
7 


23 
89 
66 



7 



2 
68 
66 

9 
36 

27 

15 
40 
25 



Spanish 
Surnamed 



6 

7 
1 

13 

13 



12 
9 
3 

3 
3 


4 
3 
1 

3 
4 
1 

2 
2 


12 

12 



7 
7 




Cumulative, 
all minority 



69 

70 

1 

164 

217 

53 

121 

112 

9 

70 

68 

2 

72 
65 

7 

47 
46 
43 

37 

112 

75 

54 
82 
28 

97 

117 

20 



Sources: CCR WIS. SAC survey. (See table 1.2.) HEW OCR 1970-71 survey. 



Table B.2 

Comparison CCR Vi'lS. S.AC an«l 

HEW OCR Data on Vt SU American 

Minority Enrollment 



Totals or nine WSU's 


Black 


American 
Indian 


Oriental 


Spanlsh- 
surnamcd 


Reported to CCR. 
Reported to HEW. 
Difference 


465 

447 

18 


129 

123 

6 


75 
259 
184 


62 

70 

8 



inference witli any ronfulenoe, but speculate tliat Superior 
may inadvertently have reported some international 
hiack Hludentti as Anieri<*an on the HEW report. Table 
IJ.l reveals four si<;nifiranl instances in which IIEU 
received higher reports of .American (Oriental students 
than did CCK. .\t Oshkoi-h no .\merican Orientals were 
reported to CCR but seven were reported to HEW. 
Table B.3 shows that Oshkosh reported 24 international 
Oriental students to CCR, anil it may be that seven of 
these were reported as .\merican to HEW or that seven 
of these should have been reported as .\nierican to CCR. 
Looking to the Oriental cells for Vt hitewater, Superior, La 
Crosse, and Eau Claire on table B..3, it is immediately 
evident that the large number of American Orientals 



69 



Tahlv it.:( 



ruble M.l 



CCR and HEW cJilTerenccs compared to 
International Students Reported to CCR 





Black 


Amer- 
ican 
Indian 


Oriental 


Spanish 

sur- 
named 


Platteville: 

GCR/HEW difference.. 


(') 














Whitewater: 

GCR/HEW difference.. 

CCR international 

Oshkosh: 

CCR/HEW difference.. 

CCR international 

River Falls: 

CCR/HEW difference 


-12 
15 

-12 
11 




+66 
52 

+ 7 
24 

- 2 
29 

- 3 
21 

- 2 
38 

+66 
68 

+27 
28 

+25 
41 


-3 



CCR international 








Stout State: 

CCR/HEW difference.. 

CCR international 

Stevens Point: 

CCR/HEW difference 


- 3 
21 






CCR international 








Superior: 

CCR/HEW difference.. 

CCR international 

La Crosse: 

CCR/HEW difference 


+ 10 
12 






CCR international 








Eau Claire: 

CCR/HEW difference.. 
CCR international 


- 2 

7 


-3 







' No data entered where difference is zero or one. 

+/— = amount by which HEW data are more or less 
than CCR. 

Explanation: Where HEW received reports in excess 
of CCR reports, the difference may result from erroneous 
reporting of international students as American to HEW. 
Thus a plus difference, which is about equivalent to the 
number of international students reported to CCR, strongly 
suggests this type of error accounts for the difference. 



DiHcrepancy between Total Minority 

Students report«;d to HEVr OCR and 

Total Minority Stu<l«-nth K«-[»orl«-<l lo 

CCR WIS. SAf: (1970) rompar.d lo 

International Minority rep<jrted to 

CCR WIS. SAC 





Difference 

between CCK 

WIS, SAC and 

HEW/OCR 


Total 

International 

stadenu 

reported to 

CCRWIfl. SAC 


Black . 


- 18 

- 6 
+184 

+ 8 


95 


American Indian 


(*) 


Oriental 


350 


Spanish sumamed 









Totals 


+168 


445 







* Not applicable. 

+/— = amount by which HEW data are more or less 
than CCR. 

See table 1.2 for breakdown of enrollment by minority 
group, Wisconsin, out-of-State, and international by 
WSU school. 



reported to HEW in excess of those reported to CCR is in 
two instances (Superior, La Crosse} about matched by 
the number of international Orientals reported to CCR; 
in one (Eau Claire) it is exceeded in the amount of 16 
by the international Orientals reported to CCR; and in 
the case of Whitewater, after the adjustment described 
earlier was made by CCR, the number comes within 14 
of satisfying the large difference of 66. The inference 
seems rather sound that the bulk of the total difference 
in American minority students reported to CCR and 
HEW Hes in Oriental students reported erroneously as 
American rather than international to HEW. 

We can offer no explanation of the instances in which 
CCR received higher reports of American black students 
in residence than did HEW. 



70 



UNITED STATES COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS 

WASHINGTON, 0. C. 20425 




STAFF DIRECTOR 



Mr. Eugene R, McPhee 

Executive Director 

Wisconsin State Universities System 

142 East Gilman Street 

Madison, Wisconsin 53701 

Dear Mr. McPhee: 

This office was happy to receive your reply to the study 
by its Wisconsin State Committee, "The Black Student in 
Wisconsin State Universities Systems". The 33 page 
response of the Wisconsin State Universities presidents 
was reviewed carefully both by Commission staff and 
the Wisconsin State Committee. I find it encouraging 
that your reply was positive in tone. I hope this will 
lead to constructive improvements in the racial situation 
on its State university campuses as reported on by our 
Wisconsin State Advisory Committee. In the interest of 
a constructive and continuing dialogue we will publish 
the universities' reply as an appendix to the Wisconsin 
SAC report. This is in accordance with the recommenda- 
tions of the Advisory Committee. The printed report 
with the response will appear in late November, or as 
soon as the Government Printing Office schedule will 
permit. 

We were pleased that the Wisconsin State Universities 
undertook a considered response to the report. We are 
also pleased with the high degree of involvement regarding 
minority students' affairs indicated by university 
presidents. The Wisconsin State Committee will conduct 
the followup work to the report and will be in contact 
with university officials and interested State and 
local agencies. 

If I can be of assistance, please contact me. 

Sincerely, 



JOHN A. BUGGS 

Acting Staff Director 



71 



APPENDIX C 



MINORITY GROL'P STUDENTS 

IN THE 

WISCONSIN STATE UNIVERSITIES 



Problems, Challenges, Programs 

Parti 

Introduction 



INTRODUCTION 



The Wisconsin State Committee to the U. S. 
Commission on Civil Rights in August 1971 came 
forward with a 102-page document reporting its 
investigation of the education-related experiences 
of minority students on Wisconsin State Uni- 
versity campuses. The report deals almost entirely 
with black students, with a few references to all 
minority groups. The reader's attention should 
be called to this single emphasis of the Civil Rights 
Report on black students. In the campus reactions 
to the Report, each president reminded the State 
Committee that he must be concerned for the 
education of all students, including all minorities. 

The response to this State Committee docu- 
ment, introduced on this page (Part I), represents 
a careful appraisal by the State university presi- 
dents of the findings, conclusions, and recommen- 
dations contained in the Committee Report. This 
Report, entitled, "The Black Student in the 
Wisconsin State Universities System," furnishes 
partial documentation of the problems that 
minority students (particularly blacks) face in the 
WSU System. The presidents' responses are in- 
tended to verify, to clarify, and to provide further 



information on matters which the .State Com- 
mittee has reported to a degree. This additional 
background and clarification should provide a 
more firm basis upon which to plan improvements 
in higher education opportunities for minority 
groups, especially Wisconsin residents. 

For the sake of claritv and organization, the 
recommendations of the Commission will be con- 
sidered one at a time, with appropriate excerpts 
and condensations taken from statements by the 
presidents of the several State universities (Part 
II). Following the recommendations reproduced 
from the Civil Rights report, capsules summa- 
rizing the university replies are included under 
the heading of "Response.'" 

Part III of this reply is "Summary and Conclu- 
sions,"' those points considered to be of major 
significance in planning better higher education 
for minority people in Wisconsin. 

Every effort has been made to make the follow- 
ing pages as accurate and factual as possible. Oidy 
on the basis of such testimony can we move to 
the solutions of the problems before us. 



72 



MINORITY GROUP STUDENTS 

IN THE 

WISCONSIN STATE UNIVERSITIES 



Problems, Challenges, Programs 
Part II 



Responses of the presidents to Specific Recommendations Contained in the Report h\ The W isconsin 
Committee to The United States Commission on Civil Rights: "The Black Student in the Vi isconsin 
State Universities Svstem": 



President Leonard C. Haas 
President Kenneth E. Lindner 
President Roger E. Guiles 
President Hjarne R. I llsvik 
President George R. Field 
President Lee S. Dreyfus 
President Vt illiam J. Micheels 
President Karl \X . Meyer 
President William L. Carter 



Kau Claire 
La Crosse 
Oshkosh 
Platteville 
River Falls 
Stevens Point 
Stout (Menomonie) 
Superior 
Whitewater 



Recommendation 1 

The tfSU System should maintain at least the 
present number of out-oJ-State and international 
black siudrnts uhile enlarging the number of Wiscon- 
sin black students to bring the ratio to H5 percent 
Wisconsin residents and 13 percent out-of -State and 
international. This quadrupling of Wisconsin black 
students in the WSU System would raise the enroll- 
ment from six-tenths of 1 percent to 2 percent. It 
should be regarded as a first step, to be followed 
within a year bv a further increase to bring the 
W^'isconsin black student enrollment at least to the 
ratio of Wisconsin's black population {2.90 percent). 



Response 

The State universities are making special efforts 
to enroll minority students from Wisconsin high 
schools and will continue to do so. Generally, 



minority students from large cities are not in- 
terested in attending universities in small com- 
nmnities where the po[)ulation is nearly all white. 
Special programs are being offered to make the 
universities more attractive to minority students 
and their families. The presidents do not plan to 
limit out-of-State and international minority stu- 
dent enrollment while seeking to attract more 
Wisconsin minority students. 

EAU CLAIRE The recommendation is an 
ideal to be sought, but every institution is first 
and foremost a regional institution. A great arti- 
ficial stimulus must be provided to enroll black 
students in the proportion suggested in the docu- 
ment. The desires of black students and the cost 
of education suggest that it will be difficult to 
approach that figure. 

LA CROSSE favors an increase in black en- 
rollment at La Oosse, where, during the second 



73 



semester 1970-71, there were 131 minority stu- 
dents in an undergraduate enrollment of 6,226, 
including 31 l)la<-ks. La Oostse County has only 
70 blacks in a population of 80,468, according to 
the 1970 census. This puts the hiack population 
of the county at .08 percent of the total, and tiie 
black population of the university at about ..SO 
percent of total undergraduate enrollment. La 
Crosse officials have visited each Wisconsin high 
school that enrolls black students for the past 
several years in order to interest them in offerings 
at La Crosse and have invited blacks who are 
high school seniors to visit the La Crosse campus. 

OSHKOSH Two black administrators in the 
dean of students office are assigned responsibilities 
for visiting Wisconsin high schools with concentra- 
tions of black students in order to present WSU- 
Oshkosh and to help the high school student make 
decisions regarding higher education. Inter- 
national students have never been recruited, nor 
have Oshkosh personnel met with out-of-State 
high school seniors except in Northern Illinois 
where, by system office agreement, only one WSL 
representative visits a high school at Career Day 
programs. 

PLATTEVILLE The current enrollment of 85 
American black students represents about 1.8 
percent of the total enrollment, with other minor- 
ity students representing about 1.2 percent of the 
total enrollment. The current enrollment of black 
students represents an increase of 60 percent over 
the 54 reported in the CCR 1971 report. 

RIVER FALLS River Falls' commitment to 
educating minority students is not limited to 
international and out-of-State minorities. River 
Falls has, in three years, moved from virtually no 
Wisconsin black students to 44. This compares 
with 47 international minority students and 11 
other Wisconsin minority students. 

STEVENS POINT The university needs and 
will gladly accept black students from any geo- 
graphical source, to provide a multiracial experi- 
ence on campus, but will not limit out-of-State and 
international black enrollment on campus while 
waiting for in-State enrollments to quadruple. 

STOUT The WSU's have an obligation to in- 
crease the number of black students substantially 
but not all institutions have the same opportunity 
to attract black students. "Our mission is limited 
to relatively few specialties and. therefore. Stout 



cannot appeal to a broad segment of the general 
black population. '^)ur experience is that blark- 
are not, as a rule, interested in technical wieniifji 
subjects and, therefore, do not elect curriculum - 
in our schools of home economics and induhtr\ 
and technology except rarely." .Stout's rural 
setting is a disadvantage. "When recruiters visr 
high schools enrolling large numbers of blacks, Vf 
are told that there are no students interested ii, 
our university. We have brought black secondare 
school counselors and teachers to our campus t'. 
learn about our offerings. MEOC representative- 
have been invited to our campus, but no tangible 
increase has been noted." 

SUPERIOR Future plans are to work mon- 
closely with the Milwaukee Educational Oppor- 
tunity Center and to seek its assistance in en- 
couraging black students to look northward to 
WSL -Superior for educational opportunities. "Our 
admissions counselors will make a concentrated 
effort to recruit black high school seniors from 
Milwaukee County high schools." 

W HITEW ATER Since 1.3 percent of the total 
student body are black students, a good start 
has been made and the proportion of blacks is 
increasing steadily toward the immediate goal of 
2 percent. Special minority orientation, recruitini: 
efforts, a tutorial center, and a multicultural edu- 
cational center have been appropriately staffed 
for the Whitewater effort to increase minority 
enrollments. 



Recommendation 2 

The new level of black enrollment should serve as c 
base for further acceleration of black enrollment t" 
more than keep pace with this development. 



Response 

The presidents agree that, as total enrollment 
in the System increases, the total number of 
minority students eiu-olled also should increase. 

EAU CL\IRE Will work through high school 
counselors in schools enrolling black students 
to call attention to opportunities offered at 
Eau Claire. 

LA CROSSE Attempts will be made to in- 
crease the number and percentage of minority 
students. 



74 



OSHKOSH \\ ill hope to accomplish the ob- 
jective with the help of two black, administrators 
in the ofTice of the dean of students. 

PLATTEVILLE The Wisconsin State Uni- 
versities should plan to enroll more black students 
as suggested by the black community. 

KI\ ER FALLS "We would certainly hope to 
use this goal, but it must be recognized that not 
all campuses will be equally attractive to black 
students. A campus in a rural setting will generally 
not attract as many students, white or black, from 
a metropolitan area as will a campus situated in 
a center more like their home community." 

STOUT Same as Eau Claire. 

SUPERIOR Same as Eau Claire. 

\^HITE\^ ATER \^ill work toward the recom- 
mendation as an acceptable goal if the enrollment 
projections can be assumed correct. 

Recommendation 3a 

In a period of rising and stimiilaicd black enroll- 
ment, the W SL System should dciclop incentives to 
local administrators and to prospective black students 
toward accomplishing a more rulional distribution of 
black students on the nine W SL campuses. 

Response 

All of the State universities should do their 
best to attract minority group students, but 
students should have complete freedom of choice 
if space is available. The concept of free choice 
appears to be in conflict with the recommendation. 

EAU CLAIRE Has used the efforts of M EOC 
and IIEAB in talent search and has sought re- 
sources to meet needs of students not prepared 
for their classes. The director of admissions and 
his staff . . . have worked to bring black students 
to this campus. 

LA CROSSE More resources are needed to 

provide a better distribution of blacks on rani- 
puses. The best incentive possible to minority 
students would be a reasonable expectation of 
succes:^ at a university. This implies coniriiitinciit 
to the solution of a societal problem, in addition 
to the resources to teach, remediate, and solve 
community problems. Resources are needed to 
enable tiiis university to develop programs to 
help minority students succeed. 



OSHKOSH This recommendation asks for a 
System approach to recruitment of black students. 
If the System office would organize the recruit- 
ment program, WSU-Oshkosh would suggest that 
its two black administrators be assigned to work 
with the System office. 

PLATTEVILLE There must be more staff 
to assist black students, as was recommended 
in the 1967-69 biennial budget proposal. The 
statement that recruitment of Milwaukee black 
students to WSU institutions has been a result 
of an active talent search by HEAB and MEOC 
is not the case in Piatteville. Approximately 15 
percent of our black students come from that 
source. The Milwaukee students we attract rank 
lower in their high school graduating classes than 
both other Vi isconsin blacks and out-of-State 
blacks. We are determined to attract blacks from 
Milwaukee who show greater academic potential. 

RIVER FALLS It is assumed that the incen- 
tives suggested would be primarily in the form of 
financial aid. Many of the students currently 
receive the maxinnim amount of financial aid 
which can legally be granted. Perhaps there should 
be some means of allowing additional funds for 
travel to more distant campuses such as Superior, 
River Falls, Stout, and Eau Claire. 

STEVENS POINT Has the fewest black stu- 
dents but is trying a recruitment program in 
Milwaukee schools using current American black 
students as recruiters. This is a combined effort of 
the Black Student Coalition and the Admissions 
Office. It has produced some results this fall and 
some of the university's black students are opti- 
mistic about results for the 1972-73 year. 

STOUT A better distribution of black stu- 
dents is desirable but local administration is not 
passive, nor is the central administration passive, 
in this matter. 

SUPERIOR The current distribution of 
blacks among the nine campuses may. in part, 
reflect uneven recruitment practices and a need 
to intensify recruitment of blacks. Each student, 
however, should have freedom of choice in select- 
ing a campus and should not be directed to a cam- 
pus for the sake of more "rational distribution." 

Vi IIITEW ATER The WSU System does urge 
all local adiiiinistralors to encourage black enroll- 
ment, ll is unrealistic to expect that geography 
will not play an important role in a black student's 



75 



selection of a campus, because it does for all 
students. 

Reconiniciidulioii /« 

The Governor and the Board oj Hrgcnl'i should make 
explicit the policy that each of the Wisconsin State 
Universities serves all of the Stale of Wisconsin. 
This in no way derogates from the WSU role as 
commuter schools for surrounding counties. Present 
tendencies toward avoiding redundancy and building 
some program specialization among the nine institu- 
tions are consistent with this policy. 

Response 

Present laws and practices clearly indicate tiiat 
each State university serves the entire State. On 
each campus, student bodies include students from 
all or nearly all 72 counties. Informational ma- 
terials aboiit all State universities are supplied to 
students and guidance counselors in all public and 
private Wisconsin high schools, and have been for 
many years. 

Recommendations 4b and 4c 

Consistent with this recommendation, we recommend 
an amendment to Wi scon sin Statutes to require that 
one member of the Board of Regents of the Wisconsin 
State Universities be appointed from the city of 
Milwaukee. Membership on the board of regents 
should reflect minority group representation. 

We further recommend that the Statutes be amended 
to clarify the collective responsibility of the regents 
for supervising the administration of the entire W Si 
System, and the impropriety of individual regents 
developing administrative and supervisory relation- 
ships to a specific one of the W SU institutions. 

Response 

These recommendations should be directed to 
the Merger Implementation Study Committee if 
the UW and WSU Systems are merged. Governor 
Lucey has appointed Bertram N. McNamara of 
Milwaukee to the Board of Regents of State 
Universities. 

Recommendation 5 

Sustained concern must be shoicn for retention as icell 
as recruitment of black students. The objective must 
be a 90 percent black student retention rate. 



KcHponHc 

A 90 percent retention rate in not a realistic 
objective for any general group of students, but 
Slate universities are making special effort'- to 
help minority hlurlents to suw;eed and are retain- 
ing substantial numbers. 

EAU CLAIHK I'roof of concern is a program 
inaugurated tlirce years ago at Kau Claire which, 
among other things, includes the services of Mr. 
Emmett (iriffin, counselor for black students. 
The l)est retention rate was achieved in 1970 71. 
when 73 black students enrolled, nine were sub- 
pended, and nine were placed on probation. .A 90 
percent retention rate is unrealistic, since in a 
public university it is not unusual to find that 
30 percent to 40 percent of those who enroll as 
freshmen are no longer in the university two years 
later. 

LA CKOSSE A 90 percent retention rate for 
blacks is unrealistic. National statistics indicate 
a retention rate for all students entering universi- 
ties of approximately 50 percent. Responsibility 
for poor retention rates for black students must 
be borne by the preparing as well as the receiving 
school. This university is developing a tutorial 
program to be operated by successful black stu- 
dents on this campus. 

OSHKOSH A 90 percent retention figure is 
considerablv liigher than the retention rate for the 
student body as a whole. Printed guides for facult} 
point out that minority students may need re- 
duced loads and extra help in achieving orientation 
to an academic environment. Further, in assigning 
merit salary increments, WSU-Oshkosh depart- 
ment chairmen are asked to specifically consider 
efforts to raise the level of competency of all 
students, particularly those who are marginally 
prepared. In considering good teaching, Oshkosh 
chairmen are asked to visit classes and consider 
each teacher's ability to motivate students to 
succeed academically. 

SUPERIOR Of 20 black students enrolled at 
WSU-Superior during the second semester 
1970-71, two withdrew during the semester and 
one other was a graduate student. Of the 17 under- 
graduates who finished the school year, 14 were 
in good standing. A new grading system in which 
only passing grades will be recorded for freshmen 
and sophomores is under study tliis year at 
Superior. This innovation will enhance the possi- 



76 



bility of success for disadvantaged students who 
enter that institution. 

STOl T Supports the Kau Claire view. A 
stud) (lone in 1966 indicates that 53 percent of 
its entering class of 1956 had received a Bachelor 
degree 10 year? later. 

\^ HITE\^ ATER All identified special service 
students are retained Ly WSU-Whitewaler for 
two years regardless of the grade point average 
attained hy the student. Students must exhihit 
motivation and show progress. A 90 percent reten- 
tion rate for any category of students is impossible 
at the collegiate level. 

Recommendation 6 

IT isconstn's minority youth need scholastic surviral 
kits and systematic help in using, them. Such pro- 
grams can best be developed on the Jf SL campuses, 
with System leadership and budget aid, and with 
minority student parliciptilion. These programs 
should include at least the elements contained in 
the following four recommendations, that is, recom - 
mendations 8, 9, 10 and 11. 

Response 

The presidents agree that orientation, counsel- 
ing, and tutoring are essential tools in programs 
to aid minority group students, with successful 
uppcrclass minority students participating. 
Several universities have such programs. 

EAU CLAIRE Scholastic survival kits and 
systematic help will do much to aid the black 
students. 

LA CROSSE Minority student participation 
would be a vital part of a scholastic survival kit. 
Development of such a program is under wav at 
La Crosse. However, minority students cannot 
be used to the extent that their own academic 
progress is in jeopardy. 

OSHKOSII The Academic Success Com- 
mittee, responsible for a two-week orientation 
program, is continually developing new programs 
to help all students survive academically. The 
membership of the committee includes blacks who 
act as advisors and counselors to black students. 

PLATTEVILLE The two all-black student 
organizations have each been approached to 
provide orientation programs for new black 
students. 



RIVER FALLS Agrees that survival kits are 
necessary, and has initiated survival programs of 
the type described previously. 

STEVENS POINT Has not had nor needed 
this for our black students, since none was 
academically disadvantaged. We have developed 
such a program for our American Indian students. 

STOUT Has what can be classified as sub- 
freshman courses in some of the basic academic 
areas, llnglish being one of them. The problem 
has been that students do not wish to take no- 
credit courses and courses that do not apply 
toward a decree. Most students, minority students 
included, feel that they are here to earn credit 
toward a degree and anything less is detracting 
from their program. For several years tutors have 
been available for students in mathematics. The 
Counseling Center conducts sessions on study 
skills for small groups every year. 

VtHITEW ATKR We have started a com- 
prehensive remedial and tutorial program for 
minority youth. An integral part of the program 
is an institutional cominitment to an acceptable 
financial aids package for each student for a 
2-year period, which is not dependent upon the 
student's grade point average. 

Recommendation 7 

In August 1970 ff SU-Oshkosh experimented with a 
2-week orientation program designe<l to meet the 
needs of academically deficient students entering 
their freshman year. We recommend that all nine 
W S Vs adopt similar programs, coupling orientation 
with preregistralion under circumstances permitting 
individual attention to the needs of each student. 
For the program to be successful, it is mandatory- 
thai financial support he provided to enable needy 
students to participate. This could he a vital part of 
an academic survival kit for minority students. 

Response 

Several State universities now conduct special 
orientation sessions for students needing academic 
help and counseling. For example. Stout en- 
courages such students to attend the summer 
session and provides special assistance. More such 
programs are planned. 

EAU CLAIRE We have a 2-day orientation 
and preregistration program for all students. The 



77 



black student counselor was available for this 
program this past summer. Some weaknesses in 
coniniunication between the counselor and the 
students will be corrected. A very successful 
1-week orientation program was held during the 
week prior to the opening of the fall scmeBter. 
Although only nine black students took advantage 
of this program, it was highly successful and 
suggests a pattern for the future. Financial sup- 
port for the needy students was provided through 
gifts that were received from members of the 
Eau Claire community. 

LA CROSSE We would be happy to partici- 
pate in programs similar to the Oshkor^h program. 
The problem of scholastic deficiency — at least a 
diagnosis — should be addressed at that time. 

OSHKOSH At the time of registration a 
special counseling and aid table is arranged for 
black students in the registration arena. Black 
faculty, administrators, and fellow students are 
available to help the black student through 
the registration process. Substantial expansion 
of existing and projected programs cannot be 
financed under current budgetary restrictions. 

PLATTEVILLE The complaint concerning 
assembly-line mass registration is of questionable 
merit. A 2-week orientation program may be 
valuable, but surely the individual registration of 
black freshmen could be accomplished in a part of 
one day. A 2-week period would require special 
funding. 

RIVER FALLS Members of the Human Rela- 
tions Committee work with the Counseling Center 
at River Falls and have made it a practice to 
provide individual counsehng for minority stu- 
dents in registration and the preparation of course 
schedules. A 2 -week orientation period may not 
be sufficiently long to meet the needs of academi- 
cally deficient students and we doubt the efficiency 
of nine such programs. Some consideration might 
be given to an 8-week period on three or four of 
the campuses with some input from all nine 
universities. 

STEVENS POINT We are enthusiastic about 
the Oshkosh experiment and hope resources can 
be made available for such a program on this 
campus for all academically deficient students. 

STOUT This university invites students with 
academic deficiencies to attend a summer session 
prior to entering their freshman year. The invita- 



tion carries with it the offer of financial asftiittance. 
The University Counseling Center maintains very 
close contact with all these students, who meet 
several lirtich liuring the summer with the coun- 
selor and in small groups to discuss their problems. 
Those who do not attend the summer session are 
invited to the pre-registration period and they 
are assisted on an individual basis. 

SUPERIOR In the future, black faculty 
members, along with other minority graduate and 
undergraduate students, will assist in the orienta- 
tion program. The Financial Aids office will 
attempt to speed financial assistance to minority 
students. We favor a Systemwide summer orien- 
tation for minority students, preferably in 
Milwaukee, a field station, or a centrally located 
WSU campus. A common pooling of resources 
and personnel might assist academically and cul- 
turally deprived students to make a better transi- 
tion to university life. WSU-Superior plans to 
increase the use of testing instruments to better 
evaluate and place incoming freshman students. 

WHITEWATER We have an orientation pro- 
gram for minority students, begun in 1971. The 
3-day orientation session includes small group 
discussions covering academic programs, financial 
aids, admissions procedures, social affairs, regis- 
tration, and specific student-teacher problems. 



Recommendation 8 

Minority students require the full-time guidance and 
support of a faculty member-administrator with a 
rank equivalent to dean, who is able to arrange 
scholastic testing, tutoring and remedial tvork for 
academically deficient students, socialize minority 
students to the ways of the college bureaucracy; and 
act as an intermediary for students with officialdom 
on campus and in town. It is essential that such 
positions be budgeted for all W SL's to plan for 
impending large-scale minority student enrollment 
and serve the students adequately when they come. 



Response 

\ 
The recommendation is supported by the re- 
sponse of the presidents. Some have been able to 
hire special counselors for minority students. All 
plan to strengthen their staffs in this area as soon 
as they can obtain funding and recruit quaUfied 
personnel. 



78 



EAU CLAIRE Three faculty members at Eau 
Claire are assigned the direct responsibility for 
full-time guidance, to act as intermediaries with 
groups in the community, and to arrange for 
scholastic survival help. One of these is a black 
faculty member who is engaged full-time in this 
type of work. Another is a half-time black faculty 
member who is associated with the Counseling 
OfTice. The third member is Director of the Educa- 
tioiial Opportunities program who has one-half- 
time assignment in this role. 

LA CROSSE The view held at La Crosse is 
that arrangements can be worked out so that black 
students, with adequate support, can accomplish 
many of the stated objectives. There is a lack of 
staff and other resources to give extensive indi- 
vidual help to students. Concerning problems of 
minoritv groups, the Vice President for Student 
Affairs and two associate Deans of Students met 
each week during 1970-71 with the black student 
leadership. Minority students have had immediate 
and direct access to the highest administrative 
offices at La Crosse. It is our intention to cut any 
bureaucratic red tape in dealing with minority 
students. 

OSHKOSH We have already implemented 
the essential goals of the proposal. Two full-time 
staff members with professional training and 
experience in the field of counseling have been 
riiained at the WSU-Oshkosh dean of students 
otiice to work with black students, and the stu- 
dents are aware of the assistance available from 
black counselors. Additional staff will be added as 
budgetary support is made available. 

Rn ER FALLS Orientation problems are not 
limited to blacks, although perhaps they feel them 
more keenly. Most of the services suggested in 
Recommendation 9 arc available, but not in one 
place. Nor could they possibly be assigned to one 
person. River Falls is considering possible re- 
structuring and augmentation. 

STOl T Three faculty members do arrange 
for all the services listed in this recommendation. 
Also, during the current year a black female has 
been designated by Mr. Spicer (WSL System 
office) to serve as liaison person. A program ad- 
visor (a black student) has been employed to give 
special academic advisement to new black stu- 
dents and to assist with matters of a personal or 
social nature. Several other functionaries remain 
alert at all times to the needs of minority students. 



SUPERIOR has appointed an American 
Indian to work with minority groups as a coun- 
selor and adviser. This person, along with black 
faculty members, will arrange for many of the 
needs of minority students. As in the past, efforts 
will be made to appoint more faculty members 
with special emphasis in counseling, tutoring, and 
special work with minority students. 

STEVE.NS POINT We do not has e a special 
counselor for black students, though one of our 
two black faculty members has volunteered to 
do this each year since my arrival. We do not have 
the number of black students to justify a full-time 
faculty administrator. When we do, we will at- 
tempt to get one. 

WHITEWATER A black Ph.D., W. G. 
Patten, joined the Whitewater faculty in Septem- 
ber 1970 as Associate Professor and Assistant 
Dean of Summer Session and Extended Services. 
Half of his time is devoted to academic counseling. 
He works closely with the president, other ad- 
ministrative officials, and the Human Relations 
Council in matters affecting minority students. 
Dr. Patten has been instrumental in setting up 
the tutorial center. He is assisted by a black female 
faculty member and has added an Indian faculty 
member to his staff. Dr. Patten's influence in 
the community is positive, constructive, and 
significant. 

Recommendation 9 

Each W'SL should establish remedial course work 
for a limited number of basic courses. Tutoring is an 
appropriate adjunct to remedial course ivork, and 
persons iiho hare had remedial imrh might be watched 
to determine their need for possible tutoring in other 
courses taken simultaneously or following remedial 
work. 

Response 

A start has been made in remedial and tutorial 
programs for students who need them. The need 
to expand these programs is recognized by the 
presidents. Oshkosh and Vt liitewater have Federal 
grants to assist them in broadening their pro- 
grams. Budget stringencies, particularly at uni- 
versities with declining enrollments, are a princi- 
pal, limiting factor. 

EAU CLAIRE has established remedial groups 
working on reading and writing. Hecommenda- 



79 



tions are being considered for formal groups to 
work on mathematics. 

LA C^ROSSE (Jur remedial effort is limited 
to reading skills. This program would have to lie 
expanded considerably, and it is our intent to 
do so. 

OSHKOSH Remedial services are supplied 
through a counseling center made up of nine 
full-time counselors, through a testing center 
staffed by four testing specialists, through a read- 
ing center run by four staff members, and through 
a health center operated by five nurses, five 
doctors, and one part-time psychiatrist. Academic 
tutorial services were provided last year from a 
list of 150 student tutors which was circulated 
among student services staff and faculty. The 
black assistant deans have a program of providing 
tutors for students in need. A $10,000 project, 
"College Student Organization for Promoting 
Student-to-Student Academic Assistance," the 
first funded by the U. S. Office of Education, has 
been established at Oshkosh. Faculty are required 
to maintain office hours adequate to the demand. 

PLATTEVILLE has been concerned for 
remedial efforts at the high school level. Two 
applications have been made for Upward Bound 
and Talent Search grants. 

STEVENS POINT provides a tutoring pro- 
gram to students on probation and to Indian and 
Chicano students at the high school level in their 
home communities. 

SUPERIOR Special remedial and tutoring 
assistance is available in English. It is anticipated 
that, as the number of minorit)' students with 
academic deficiencies increases, more remedial as- 
sistance will be provided in freshman English and 
speech communication. A speech correctionist has 
been available to assist students with speech 
problems. 

WHITEWATER The university has received 
a grant of $35,000 to establish a Special Services 
program for students in the poverty range who 
cannot succeed in college wthout extensive coun- 
seling and tutorial assistance. This program is 
part of the general tutorial services being provided 
for a wide range of students. Priority attention is 
being given to the basic subjects taken by fresh- 
men and sophomores. 



Kecommendnlutn 10 

When the black experience is relev<int Ut cfturite con- 
U'lii. thf roadittfis. Ifclures tmd (li\ru%sion^ should 
include it. Literature, socujlofly. history, and fioliticnl 
science courses are obvious candi/Iates for exiimina- 
tion lo determine uhether accuracy-. Ittilitnre and 
completeness rei/uire more or less detailed rejerenre 
to the contribution and experience oj black people. 

Response 

The State universities moved some time ago to 
implement the philosophy underlying Recommen- 
dation 10. This was done, in most cases, through 
black culture courses which all students are en- 
couraged to take. In addition, the System has 
established at WSU-Platteville, an ethnic and 
minority studies center which is to develop cur- 
ricular aids, programs, and consulting services 
for the System universities in this context. 

EAU CLAIRE The recommendations of this 
report of the Civil Rights Commission are being 
duplicated for all members of the faculty at 
WSU-Eau Claire. Special attention will be called 
to this recommendation relative to a review of 
academic offerings. Eau Claire conducts two spe- 
cial seminars in black history during the summer 
session. During the academic vear courses ar- 
available in black literature and black history, a- 
well as history of Africa. 

LA CROSSE Curriculum is seen as a major 
faculty responsibility at La Crosse. The under- 
graduate curriculum committee has addressed thi? 
problem and agrees that the experience of black 
people is relevant to the disciplines mentioned. 

OSHKOSH Department chairmen have, since 
1969, been requested to examine teachers' course 
outlines for evidence of inclusion of "the con- 
tribution of blacks to American cultiu-e, now 
recognized as an unfortunate omission from many 
courses." This semester, seven courses in five 
different departments with a combined enrollment 
of about 480 students, deal specifically with blacks 
or other minority groups, or the special problems 
of minority groups. Also offered are minors in 
African studies and Afro-American studies. 

PL,4TTEVILLE This university moved to 
accompUsh this pin-pose more than two years ago. 
In the spring of 1969 President Lllsvik directed 
each department head to prepare a written report 



80 



on the integration of black studies into literature, 
history, political science, sociology, education, and 
other appropriate courses; what has been accom- 
plished to date; and what was being planned for 
the forthcoming year. Bibliographies and reading 
lists for the above disciplines were developed and 
special funds were allocated to increase library 
holdings to support this endeavor. This university 
agrees with the recommendation that content on 
black experience should be included in the disci- 
|)lines wherever relevant and intends to continue 
and intensify present efforts. 

KI\'ER FALLS Courses in black history and 
black literature are offered. The number of black 
speakers who have appeared on River Falls and 
other campuses make it seem doubtful that "one 
can secure a liberal education at a WSU without 
ever learning that American life has a black 
dimension." We are in complete agreement that 
the black experience, where relevant, should be 
included in university courses. 

STEVENS POINT This is a concern which 
has been officially stressed at Stevens Point since 
1967. Most of the faculty in appropriate courses 
are cognizant of the needs for updating course 
materials to make sure all Americans have their 
appropriate place. Outside speakers have brought 
such information on blacks and Indians. 

STOl T Modest strides have been made in 
integrating the American black culture into our 
curriculum. Two courses: (1) black literature and 
(2) Afro-American history relate directly to the 
American black. Six others have special emphasis 
on black culture: (1) sociology of minority groups; 
(2) sociology of the community: (3) sociology of 
the family; (4) introduction to social work; (.S) 
labor relations; (6) social and cultural aspects 
of food. 

SLPEKIOR This university introduced a 
course in Afro-American history in 1969. In the 
1971 summer session a 3-week workshop on the 
black man's experience in America was offered on 
campus, utilizing the services of a black professor, 
Alandees C. Johnson, of Grambling College. The 
English department has developed and offered a 
course entitled, "black experience in American 
literature." The university's Department of 
Sociology has offered a course titled, "Minority 
Groups." The WSL -Superior library has increased 
its budget for books relating to such courses from 
$1,200 in 1968-69 to $3,000 in 1970-71, so that 



the library has acquired over 80 percent of the 
civil rights bibliography list of the NA.\CP. The 
purchase of library holdings related to the black 
man in America will continue. 

WHITEWATER Current offerings include: 
introduction to Afro-American culture; Afro- 
American literature. 1800 to present: the history 
of black America (2 sections); and sociology of 
minorities. 

Recommendation II 

The Committee recommends that the Hifiher Educa- 
tional Aids Board's authority be enlarged to permit 
it to act as an officer on behalf of the fFS U's, tailoring 
aid packages to meet student needs and adiising 
minority students on the developing distribution of 
newly entering and returning minority students on 
the ff SU campuses. Thus, uniformity in applying 
the formula for adminisieringfinancial aid would be 
accomplished, and an important step taken toward 
achieving greater diffusion of minority students 
among the ff SL' campuses. 

Response 

The universities are unanimous in their opposi- 
tion to the recommendation to centralize financial 
aid services to individual students in the Higher 
Educational Aids Board. All contend that fmancial 
aid decisions must be made at the universities 
wiiich the students attend, where the students 
can be consulted personally if desired, either by 
the student or the Financial Aid Director. Lniform 
guidelines now are followed in providing aids to 
incoming; freshmen. A student receives onlv one 
WSU aid offer, which will be honored by any WSU 
he chooses to attend. IIEAB staff officers have 
stated in the past that they do not desire to have 
determination of student need removed from the 
individual universities. 

EAU CLAIRE Both the Director of Financial 
Aids and members of the faculty working with 
financial needs of black students question the 
advisability of preparation of packets on a mass 
basis in a central office. It is their belief that local 
consideration for the individual student would 
lead to greater help for the student. 

LA CROSSE Financial aids offices seem to be 
overburdened presently with various levels of 
rule-making authority. These various levels of 



81 



authority are often at odds with one another and 
issue conflicting dirc(;lion. <^)rdinarily, greater c<;n- 
trahzalion of autliority (Joes not result in hetter 
service to students. We beheve we could be of 
more help to minority students with more flexi- 
bility on this camj>u8. 

OSHKOSH Oshkosh has reservations relating 
to this recommendation for the following reasons: 

(1) WSU financial aids officers presently accom- 
phsh need analysis and awarding using both 
program guidelines and mutually agreed upon 
procedures. If these do not result in the desired 
uniformity, then the WSU aid officers can adjust 
the guidelines and procedures. This can be accom- 
plished without using an external State agency. 

(2) Students, especially minority group stu- 
dents, have continually changing financial needs. 
An office in Madison coidd not respond ade- 
quately to changes that occur during the year. 

(3) Many minority students arrive on campus 
at or after registration time with no financial aids 
application, no parents' confidential statement, 
no real knowledge of the procedures involved, 
and no money. We cannot ask these people to see 
HEAB officials. 

(4) Uniformity of need analysis would not 
assure equity. HEAB analysts would not neces- 
sarily do a more adequate job of assessing a 
student's financial need. Also, since one person 
could not do all of the need analysis, HEAB 
could not achieve complete uniformity. 

(5) The scholarship service agencies, CSS and 
ACT, now provide a standardized analysis of 
family financial strength. This agency report does 
not dictate the amoimt of aid to be provided to 
the student; that decision is made by the local aid 
officer, using the report as a tool. HEAB would 
lack the feature missing in the service agencies — 
closeness to the student on the campus — and 
thus coidd not improve upon the need analysis 
done by CSS/ ACT. 

WSU-Oshkosh woidd support expanded HEAB 
advising of minority students, but would like 
State support of advisory services in high schools 
in low-income areas, cooperatively operated. 

PLATTEVILLE The Higher Education Aids 
Board does send financial aids applications and 
information to Wisconsin high schools. However, 
only the one-page application is returned to 
HEAB, which forwards them to the individual 
colleges and universities. That these applications 



are screened by IIF^AIi in most unlikely, aince 
many forms r<T<;iv<;d at this univeriiity are incom- 
|)lele. The four-page parents' confidential state- 
ment is gent by the student to Evanston, Illinois, 
where they arc processed and forwarded directly 
to colleges and universities. The recommendation 
that HEAH's authority be enlarged to permit it 
to act as an officer in behalf of the WSL's, tailoring 
packages to meet student needs, is vigorously 
opposed. Finding #7 of the Committee showed 
that black students are receiving sympathetic 
treatment when applications are late, etc. The 
Committee would err in believing that such excep- 
tions do not require close cooperation between 
the financial aids office and other administrative 
offices on campus. The conclusion at Platteville 
is that problems would be compounded by pack- 
aging aids at a central office. 

RIVER FALLS River Falls does not endorse 
this recommendation. We believe the work load 
for HEAB would be unwieldy and there would be 
even less flexibility for late appUcants. In addition, 
this seems to conflict with the underlying phi- 
losophy of keeping the source of financial aid 
close to the students. As matters now stand, 
representatives of the State imiversities meet 
annually to agree on college costs and the ratio 
of grants to loans and work. Due to this, aid 
packages are usually uniform although some late 
packages may not conform to the ratio because of 
insufficient funds in some accounts. 

STEVENS POINT Stevens Point financial 
aids officers do not agree that HEAB should take 
over the preparation of financial aids packages. 
Our office of financial aids has been trying to 
work with all black students, as we realize our 
enrollment is low. They have similarly been trying 
to package aid for any needy student that will 
help him obtain an education. 

STOUT The HEAB might be in a position 
to give very generalized information to students, 
but the revisions of aid packages as requested by 
the student seems to be an impossible exj)ectation 
of off-campus agencies. 

SLTPERIOR Student financial aids programs 
at Superior are carefully administered with re- 
spect to the needs of minority students. Officials 
at Superior also feel that centralizing the program 
in HEAB will be cumbersome and remote. It yriU 
discourage identification with the local campus, 
produce late registration, and tend to provide 



82 



uniform aid packages to minorities when they 
should be adapted to needs. This will increase the 
frustrations of students who need immediate, 
convenient, and personal assistance. 

\^ HITEWATER It is the feeling of officials 
at Vi liitewater that the black students are better 
served by the present system which allows for 
some autonomv and flexibility as well as providing 
for personal contact with the aid oflicer. To 
delegate this responsibility to a central State 
agencv would take ail personal contact and hope 
for personal appeal away from the process anil 
create greater confusion and frustrations. 

Recommendation 12 

riw Cimirnittee recommends that ndminislrative ac- 
tion be taken as soon as possible and legislation be 
enacted as needed to make it possible to administer 
financial aid to lou-income students in the form of 
grants and employment without entailing loans. 

Response 

All the universities concur with the recommen- 
dation that grants be awarded low-income stu- 
dents to the degree possible and all but one would 
like to see loans eliminated as a form of financial 
aid for these students. However, since employ- 
ment interferes with study time for most of these 
students, who find the first year or two of college 
work a struggle, this form of aid i^hould not be 
stressed. Loans are thus often preferable. The 
crux of the matter lies in the need for adequate 
State and Federal funding and in a review of 
the rules and regulations governing awarding of 
grants. 

EAL CLAIRE "This recommendation is en- 
tirely dependent upon legislative action that 
would provide much greater funding, both at the 
State and national level." 

LA CROSSE We support the idea of addi- 
tional flnancial aids for students to reduce the 
need for borrowing. We believe higher education 
should be available and accessible to all without 
regard to economic status. 

OSIIKO.SII The loan element of the aid pack- 
age for low-income students shouhl be reduced 
to a minimum. Oshkosh would welcome additional 
grants to low-income students. Two factors affect 



implementation: 

(1) The ability or willingness of the student to 
work during the academic year. 

(2) The availability of funds to provide grant, 
scholarship, and work-study aid. 

PLATTEVILLE Recognizing that a student 
can accumulate substantial debts through loans, 
we try to provide a high percentage of aid in the 
form of grants to black students. In 1969-70 black 
students received 12 percent of their aids as grants, 
while whites received 20 percent. The proportion 
for blacks dropped to 34 percent in 1970-71 
because the State Teacher's Scholarship program 
was being phased out. 

RIVER FALLS "We are in sympathy with 
the intent of Recommendation 12 but would put 
even more emphasis on grants. For the student 
who enters the university with academic de- 
ficiencies, part-time employment is not the answer 
to his financial needs." 

STEVENS POINT Some loan aspect should 
be retained in order to maintain a commitment on 
the part of the student. Stevens Point is cautious 
about the use of employment for students with 
academic problems. "Employment can create 
academic failure." 

STOUT "It has been our experience that 
many low-income students choose not to work 
l)ecause they prefer to spend time on their studies. 
With the present State and Federal regulations 
on the grant [>rograms. there is no choice in most 
cases but to offer the student a loan." 

Sl'PERIOR Grant money coupled with loans 
will be more conducive to academic success than 
if work-study is included, since the latter requires 
working, perhaps at the expense of studying. 

\iHITEWATER We favor grants and em- 
ployment over loans, whenever funds are 
available. 



Recommendation 13 

Financial aid packages to needy students should be 
so administered as to maximize accounting transfers 
where aid mone^- is to be used to discharge obligations 
to the school. Deposits, lalefces. and penalties should 
be u-uived and not permitted to encumber financial 
aid funds. 



83 



KcHponse 

The recominendalions appear to he interpreted 
difTcrcnily by tli<; |)r<"sid<'ntK. If polificK concerniiif^ 
depoHits, laic fee payiiientK, and pciiallieH are to l)e 
differcnl lor students receiving financial aid than 
for oilier tstiidentH, the financial aid directors 
should recommend kucIi jiolicies to the (Jouncil of 
Presidents for Systemwide application. 

EAU CLAIRE Better counseling and working 
relationships with ihe individual needy students 
should lead to orderly discharge of obligations on 
the part of all students. 

LA CROSSE We do not think it would he 
possible for this university to deposit grant money 
in a student account and then transfer funds to 
meet obligations to the university. Loans could 
not be handled in this manner for obvious reasons. 
Deposits, late fees, and penalties need to be 
assessed to expedite business transactions. Student 
accounts and transfers imply additional business 
office personnel. 

OSHKOSH We support this recommendation. 
The university can, and does, defer room deposits 
and fee payments pending receipt of financial aid. 
WSU-0 concurs that a university should not have 
to charge late penalties when such penalties reduce 
the total amount of financial aid available to the 
student. 

PLATTEYILLE This university accepts the 
recommendation that accounting transfers be 
maximized, but removing all penalties for not 
following procedures is not acceptable unless the 
university is also freed of obligations to collect 
the fees of such students. 

RIVER FALLS With respect to this finding, 
we can discover no evidence on our campus that 
late fees, deposits, etc., are used in any way for 
"disciplining students to desired behavior." The 
language of the recommendation is not clear and 
it seems to us that reasonable judgment should 
prevail in individual circumstances so that stu- 
dents who need economic assistance are in no way 
penalized for being poor. 

STEVENS POINT We already have a policy 
whereby any student on financial aid can receive 
approval for deferred payments, thus avoiding 
deposits, late fees, and penalties. 

WHITEWATER Provisions are made for 
paying fees after registration when authorized by 



tlie financial aids office. Such arrangements are 
not subject to penalty. 

HecommeniUilion It 
Hecommendulion I In 

1 1 is important that stnjj counstding blacks ham close 
ni/tfiorl and rr/irt'si'itl hiarl; profi'ssional (irhit'V*-- 
iiu'iit. liliick jirojfssioimls must b<' ntruili-d to 
participate in counseling and remedial programs. 

Response 

That more black professionals should be 
employed is accepted by all the universities. 
Five already have one or more black counselors 
and/or instructors and adminislratr)r'^. All rite 
difficulties in recruiting or retaining qualified 
blacks which may be summarized as follows: 

(1) Shortage of professionally qualified blacks 
and keen competition for services of the few- 
available. 

(2) Difficulty of attracting blacks to live and 
work in small, nearlv all-white communities in 
rural areas of the State. 

(3) Inability to compete with better offers 
from other institutions. One universitv objected 
to the implication that "only blacks can help 
blacks". 

EAU CLAIRE Has employed two staff coun- 
selors who are black. 

LA CROSSE Efforts to recruit well-qualified 
black faculty are often met with pleas not to 
take experienced faculty from institutions pres- 
ently employing them. Unfortunately, we have 
not, to my knowledge, had one black applicant 
for a vacant position during the past year. 

O.SHKOSH Oshkosh has been more fortunate 
in hiring blacks, having had two black assistant 
deans who help in counseling. 

PLATTEVILLE PlatteviUe was unable to 
retain a black administrator, an assistant director 
of the student center, because it could not 
compete with an offer from another institution 
for his services. 

RIVER FALLS We acknowledge the employ- 
ment of few or no blacks, but the second part 
requires a leap in logic. The reasoning seems to 
be: the WSU System doesn't want black staff 
members. Black staff members are the most 



84 



sought after by all universities, including Ivy 
League and Big Ten schools. One black faculty 
member has been at River Falls for II years. 
Another was lost in 1970 after four years because 
it was impossible to compete with an offer from 
a neighboring State for his services. However, the 
sensed assumption that "only blacks can help 
blacks" has not proved true at River Falls. 

STEVENS POINT ^e agree that more 
blacks should be hired since there are only two 
black faculty members here. Since the Ttli 
Congressional District has had the lowest black 
population in the entire L nitcd States, the 
black population in the Stevens Point area is 
almost nil and does not attract blacks. Stevens 
Point pledges to continually seek to recruit blacks 
in all areas of university employment. 

STOl T We would welcome the opportunity 
to eniplov black professionals for counseling and 
remedial programs. Currently such persons are 
difficult to attract to a community in which 
there are few, if any, members of minority 
groups residing in the city in which the university 
is located. 

SUPERIOR Superior has two black instruc- 
tors out of 208 hired. Attempts to hire additional 
black faculty were unsuccessful. An American 
Indian graduate student has been appointed to 
work with, counsel, and assist in recruiting 
minority students. 

WHITEWATER A black professional edu- 
cator who does academic counseling was hired 
last year; a full-time black counselor was also 
hired. In the last two years black students were 
employed to help in counseling at residence halls 
and in special programs for blacks. 

Recommendation I4b 

Much apprehension and nascent resentment which 
hlack stiidcnls experience in approaching the finan- 
cial aids <ij]i(c would he lifted uvre thev to see tit least 
one hlack siaJJ member and ur recommend a vigorous 
effort to recruit blacks to financial aid staffs. 

Response 

Whitewater has a black student counselor in 
the fmancial aids office. Some other universities 
would be glad to consider black applicants for 
their staffs if they had openings. Some universities 



report no evidence of the apprehension cited in 
the recommendation and sav their offices have 
excellent ra]»port with black students. 

EAU CLAIRE The black faculty counselors 
speak with high approbation of the present 
financial aids office as related to black students. 

OSHKOSII The university would participate 
actively in the recruitment and emplovment of a 
black meiidier of the financial aids staff. 

PLATTEVILLE We agree that a black 
faculty member in our student aids office would 
be helpful. 

RIVER FALLS We have two staff members 
working in financial aids. We would be happy 
if one or both were black, but they aren't. 

STOUT We are aware that some black 
students are apprehensive in approaching our 
office. Our efforts to have those students who have 
overcome this apprehension work in a liaison 
capacity seems to have been successful. We 
feel that our financial aids office has established 
good rapport with the black students on campus. 

SUPERIOR No apprehension is evident from 
blacks concerning financial aids. A black student 
has been a member of the financial aid com- 
mittee for the past three years. 

WHITEWATER has employed a black stu- 
dent counselor in the financial aids office for a 
year and a half and plans to continue this coun- 
seling service to black students. 



Recommendation 14c 

The lack of black staff members in athletic depart- 
ments is startlingly evident. The fFSU System 
should make every effort to attract black coaches and 
physical education specialists to its campuses. 



Response 

The State universities hire physical education 
teachers who also serve as coaches. All report 
that they have been unable, thus far, to find 
qualified black applicants for these faculty and 
coaching positions. The presidents report that 
treatment of minority group athletes is fair and 
that relations between them and white athletes 
are amicable. 



85 



LA CROSSE ThiH university emphasizes 
physical cducalion and has a larf:;c staff. W(' 
hire teachers who are also ('oac-hes. 'I'eaeliiiig 
preparation is most important to us in hiring 
for the physical echicalion department. Qualified 
blacks have not heen availahie. 

RIVER FALLS The lack of black staff 
members in athletic departments appears to be 
no more "startling" than the lack of black 
faculty in most departments. A desire to have 
black faculty members does not necessarily 
make them available. 

OSHKOSH A black instructor was added 
to the WSU-Oslikosh physical education staff 
this year. Efforts are now being made to recruit 
at least one black coach. However, as in the total 
university community, administrators are unable 
to tell from credentials whether applicants are 
black or white. . . . We welcome qualified black 
candidates. 



Recommendation 14d 

We know of no instance where a WSU campus has 
employed a black housing director or hall director. 
The record on employment of blacks as resident 
assistants is mixed. The Wisconsin Committee 
recommends that the WSU's increase minority par- 
ticipation in employment in the field of housing. 



Response 

Four of the universities have had black housing 
administrators and personnel who left for various 
reasons, and one reports hiring a black for this 
position for 1971-72. Several have had and 
currently have black resident assistants. One 
problem area is getting blacks to apply for these 
positions and another is retaining those who 
are hired. 

EAU CLAIRE A black housing director. Miss 
Bobbie A. Irwins, served in this capacity until 
recently but left the campus to accept a position 
at Prairie View College in Texas. Efforts have 
been made to employ several other black persons, 
but the salary schedule was not high enough to 
induce them to accept the position. 

OSHKOSH A black hall director was em- 
ployed for one semester. Her employment was 
self-terminated because of family problems. 



This university has and will continue to hire 
black rchident assistants and head resident)). 
Stiidcnlh arf selected for the ptjsition on the 
basis of lea<lership, scholarship, and ahilitN to 
corniiiiinicate with fellow students. 

I'LATTEVILLE During the 1969 70 aca- 
demic year, Mr. and Mrs. Herman Orr and 
their daughter lived in one of the residence 
halls where Mr. Orr served as the director. Mr. 
Orr is a black educator from Milwaukee who 
earned his Master's degree in counseling and 
guidance from WSL'-Platteville in August 1970. 
He was offered a permanent position as a member 
of the Platteville faculty, but he decided to 
return to his previous position in an all-black 
school in Milwaukee. 

RIVER FALLS We have a blar k residence 
hall director for 1971-72. 

STOUT Stout has had resident assistants 
from minority groups. Currently, one is Spanish 
American. No blacks applied to be R.A.s this 
year. 

SUPERIOR Black students have served as 
assistants at Superior since 1968 69. This year 
the senior resident assistant is a black student. 

WHITEWATER A contract was offered to 
black female hall director candidate (Robbie 
Luckie) in the spring of 1965. She declined the 
offer to take advantage of the graduate program 
at the University of Wisconsin. She has been the 
only black residence hall director applicant. 
Tom Wise, a black, was hired and served as 
housing conference coordinator during 1969-70. 
Records from the housing office show that a 
black was assistant inspector of off-campus 
housing and that others served as student main- 
tenance assistants during the summer. Three 
blacks are currently serving as resident as- 
sistants, and blacks have consistently been 
employed since the inception of the program in 
1958. 



Recommendation 14e 

The IVSU campus security forces are in the process 
of enlargement and professionalization. The Com- 
mittee recommends that efforts be made to recruit 
black police science graduates to the security force. 



86 



Response 

The salary range approved for security officers 
is not sufficient to attract police science graduates. 
Vi here students are employed in security depart- 
ments it is possible to include minority students 
who are interested in the work. 

EAl' CLAIRE Student positions on the local 
security force are open to black students. 

LA CROSSE The Civil Service category. 
Security Officer I, the level at which we employ 
our campus security, is financially imattractive 
to black police science graduates. We have 
employed a black student radio operator in 
campus security. 

PLATTEVILLE None of the campus security 
officers is black, but one member of the police 
science department is black. 

SUPERIOR It would be necessary to raise 
the compensation level to pay grade 12 or better 
to attract police science graduates. 

Recommendation 15 

fFSU administrators should be encouraged to face 
uith equanimity and tolerance the reasonable desire 
of black students not to be compelled either to Hie 
together or uparl from fellow blacks. All reasonable 
housing requests, which do not impinge upon and 
narrow the freedoms of others, should receive serious 
consideration and sympathetic response. 



Response 

There is total agreement with this recom- 
mendation and, in fact, it restates the official 
policies that were in effect on all campuses long 
prior to the issuance of the Committee's report. 

LA CROSSE Exceptions to university rules 
regarding housing, or any other activity of the 
university, for a class or group of students is 
difficult for all students to accept. We know that 
the j)erfcct rule has not yet been written; there- 
fore, we regularly consider individual student 
needs in applying the rules. 

OSHKO.SH Incoming students have choice 
of residence hall and roommate providing both 
contracts are received within a reasonable length 
of time. Every effort is made to honor hall and 
roommate preference. If no preferences are 



stated, dormitory rooms are assigned without 
any bias toward race, color, or creed. 

PLATTEVILLE Students here have freedom 
of choice of roommates. Students are allowed to 
change rooms one month after the start of each 
semester as a routine procedure and at other 
times for sufficient reason. Black students have 
complete freedom to cluster or not to cluster, as 
they wish. 

RIVER FALLS The university concurs with 
the proposed recommenclation. 

STEVENS POINT The recommendation 
states what is already the policy at Stevens 
Point, though black students have been urged to 
"scatter" themselves through the dorm so as 
to provide a learning experience much needed 
by the white students. 

STOUT We have had an open policy in 
regard to students having the opportunity to 
select the hall, room, and floor on which to live. 
Black students have, on occasion, clustered in 
small living groups. The Stout housing staff 
feels these students should be able to live with 
their friends just as other students do. Our 
practices in regard to housing black students 
tend to follow the above recommendation. 
There have been certain difficulties with respect 
to housing blai^ks in the community. These 
have been discussed with Mr. Spicer, who agrees 
that the problem would likely be compounded 
if the university were to assume a "head-on" 
confrontation. Support in planning an approach 
has been sought from the city manager of 
Menomonie. 

SUPERIOR Officials at Superior believe that 
it is important to give all students a choice as to 
hall, room, and roommate. In cases where choices 
are not made, the policy of random assignment 
will be continued. 

WHITEWATER At Whitewater all appUca- 
tions are accepted on a chronological basis. All 
mutual roommate requests are honored. Students 
who listed no roommate preference are assigned 
randomly, using information provided on the 
application: whether a student goes to bed early, 
smokes, sleeps with the window open, choice of 
visitation or non-visitation, etc. Upperclassmen 
whose applications were received by May 7, 
1971 were guaranteed first preference of residence 
hall. 



87 



Hecommendation 16 

Dormitory rules should relate to personal safely and 
building maintenance, not to enforcing any particu- 
lar set of cultural mores. 

Response 

There are fewer rules and regulations in force 
in residence halls than in previous years. The 
regulations are not intended to enforce "any 
particular set of cultural mores" but, rather, to 
create an atmosphere in which all students can 
pursue their own interests without undue inter- 
ference with the pursuits of others. 

EAU CLAIRE Fewer rules and regulations 
are in force today than formerly. 

OSHKOSH Residence hall programs do not 
reflect upon any particular set of cultural mores. 
They are developed to help students achieve a 
sense of responsibility, respect for others' rights 
and property, and a concern for others' well 
being. Guidelines that are distributed to each 
residence hall student are available upon request. 

STOUT Emphasis is placed on achieving a 
somewhat quiet and pleasant atmosphere needed 
for study and relaxation. 

SUPERIOR Black students have served on 
residence hall social committees for the past 
several years. This ensures that social activities 
include those that are of interest to blacks. 

WHITEWATER Residence hall regulations 
are designed to create an optimum climate for 
students to achieve their educational objectives 
while at the university, as well as to protect 
personal safety and building maintenance. The 
enforcement of quiet hours by students themselves 
may take preference over cultural mores which 
interfere with important educational objectives. 

Recommendation 17 

WSU presidents should take the lead in mobilizing 
campus and host city support for fair housing codes 
in the host city, and then in assuring effective ad- 
ministration of such codes, when enacted. 

Response 

The "finding" that the universities have been 
"ineffectual" in establishing fair housing codes 
and attitudes in university cities is not supported 



by facts. Responses of the presidenUt below H|>eak 
for themselves. 

EAU CLAIKF) University oflficials sup[>orted 
a fair housing code for the city, and it was 
adopted. Knowledge of discrimination \>\ any 
landlord removes his housing from the approved 
housing list of W.SU-Eau Claire. 

LA CROS.SE La Crosse has a code which 
addresses the problems of discrimination in 
off-campus housing. A committee appointed by 
the mayor is responsible for finding facts re- 
garding complaints of discrimination. Any viola- 
tions reported to the university would be referred 
promptly and vigorously to the committee. 

OSHKOSH Students under 21 who live off 
campus must have housing approved. Such 
approval requires compliance with Federal, State, 
and municipal policy on discrimination. Each 
landowner must sign a nondiscrimination agree- 
ment. Approved housing must comply with 
standards set forth by the city of Oshkosh 
minimum housing code as adopted by the Com- 
mon Council on July 23, 1970. Any act of dis- 
crimination will cause steps to be taken to remove 
listing of such housing from the WSU -Oshkosh 
approved file. 

PLATTEVILLE We maintain a list of ap- 
proved off-campus housing in our student housing 
office. If a student complains about discrimination, 
a call is placed to the landlord inquiring if housing 
is available. If such housing is available, then an 
appointment is arranged for the student to 
contract for the housing. If the student is not 
then extended a housing contract, and further 
inquiry indicates discrimination, the householder's 
name is removed from the list. 

RIVER FALLS A fair housing code was 
adopted by the city of River Falls in August 
1967 and is in the process of being revised. River 
Falls officials do not conclude that if a black 
faculty member commutes to the host city, this 
is conclusive evidence of discrimination. River 
Falls black staff members have always resided 
in River Falls, though 41 nonblack staff members 
commute. 

STEVENS POINT Fair housing has been a 
top-priority item since 1967. In the spring of 
1968, the Stevens Point Common Council unan- 
imously passed the model housing law and has 
made enforcement of that law eminently clear. 



88 



SUPERIOR To the best of our knowledge, 
black students and faculty have had no unusual 
difficulty in obtaining housing in Superior. 
Administrators have assisted blacks in securing 
housing and continue to advocate fair housing. 
The university requires that university housing 
listings be available regardless of race, creed, or 
ethnic background. In one case, a landlord who 
refused housing to a black married student 
couple was reported to the city attorney. 

WHITEWATER The WSU-Whitewater stu- 
dent handbook contains a statement about fair 
housing. The university has no jurisdiction over 
off-campus housing but has assisted students 
and landlords when requested to do so. Ad- 
ministrators of the university have worked for 
fair housing and pledged to do everything possible 
to get the City Council to enforce the code thev 
adopted two years ago. 

Recommendation 18 

Recruitmenl of black athletes should he one element 
in a massiiv deed, rather than word, oriented effort 
on the part of W'SU athletic departments to enlist 
the confidence of black students. 

Response 

While all the universities lack the prime 
recruitment tool — athletic scholarships — five re- 
port having substantial numbers of blacks on 
inter-collegiate teams for years. Therefore, the 
recommendation is variously endorsed, already 
implemented and considered unnecessary, or 
questioned because of the vague or untrue 
premises on which it is based. 

EAU CLAIRE Black athletes are very promi- 
nent on the WSU-Eau Claire athletic teams. We 
do not concur with the statement that members 
of the faculty are racially biased. 

LA CROSSE The coaching staff has a mixed 
point of view regarding recruitment of any 
athlete. They, basically, have no inducements 
to offer an athlete other than an excellent educa- 
tional opportunity. 

OSHKOSII Currently 17 black athletes are 
participating in WSU-Oshkosh intercollegiate 
athletics, and current efforts to recruit black 
athletes will be expanded. While this proportion 



compares favorably with the total male student 
body, the fact remains that the WSU System 
does not make available any athletic scholar- 
ships, and such scholarships are important to 
minority groups because of greater economic need. 

PLATTEVILLE We have heard reports from 
sonic black students that our coaches do not 
offer equal opportunity in athletic competition 
to black students; yet other black students who 
have achievcfl athletic success indicate that 
equal opportunity is demonstrated. We have 
checked with our coaching staff concerning such 
accusations and the staff insists that every 
athlete is treated equally and that they are 
especially anxious to secure students with athletic 
powers, black or white. 

RIVER FALLS The university endorses the 
recommendation but observes that the "finding" 
on which it is based is worded in such a way that 
it cannot be refuted. By using phrases such as 
"are convinced that", "general indictment", and 
"was seen as", the authors have made a response 
impossible. 

STEVENS POINT Lack of athletic scholar- 
ships is an absolute deterrent. It would be foolish 
of a black athlete to come here without an 
athletic scholarship when they are available 
almost everywhere else. We, as a System, might 
look at this recommendation as it relates to 
Recommendation 12. 

STOUT Stout endorses the recommendation. 

SUPERIOR As early as 1958, WSU-Superior 
recruited black athletes who competed in football, 
basketball, wrestling, track, cross country, and 
hockey. Black athletes have been elected captains 
of our varsity teams and have been elected 
officers in our lettermen's club. The philosophy 
of our coaches emphasizes plaving anv qualified 
student athlete, regardless of color. Our coaches 
counsel, advise, and assist black athletes at any 
time they may have a problem. This philosophy 
will continue in the future. Black athletes have 
assisted in encouraging and recruiting other 
black athletes. 

WHITEWATER Black WSU-Whitewater 
football players in 1971 number 14. Former 
football teams have included both offensive and 
defensive black starters. 



89 



Recommendation 19 

Each WSV should develop a vigorous community 
relations program having the purpose of enhancing 
good relations between the host community and all 
oj the segments oj the varied student body on campus. 
By definition, each WSV student body will he 
strange and somewhat alien to the population and 
mores of the host community and it is the responsi- 
bility of the individual JVSWs with central stimula- 
tion and funding from the regent's office in Madison, 
to make these qualities a positive rather than negative 
factor in WSU community relations. 

Response 

The universities have developed strong and 
sohd ties with the cities in which they are located, 
with faculty and students active in off-campus 
affairs, including city government and civic 
organizations. These ties now are valuable in 
assisting minority students and faculty members 
and community residents to bridge cultural 
differences. 

EAU CLAIRE The university has been work- 
ing with the community for several years to 
enhance good relationships between the com- 
munity and all segments of the student body. A 
town meeting approach has been used, including 
the formation of a group to develop the very 
suggestions of Recommendation 19. This group 
was responsible for locating housing for more 
than a score of black students who registered 
late in each of two years when it appeared that 
housing was exhausted. Eau Claire is in the 
process of forming a human rights commission 
to augment campus and community relationships. 
Special efforts by the Eau Claire Police Depart- 
ment and campus security staff have developed 
an excellent relationship. 

LA CROSSE Efforts have been made and 
will continue to be made concerning the town- 
gown relationship. Help has been found from 
community resources such as churches, city 
officials, and the chamber of commerce. 

OSHKOSH will expand its considerable ac- 
tion in enhancing community relations. Current 
efforts include: 

(1) A chamber of commerce -university rela- 
tions committee which has undertaken programs 
to help the black adjust to an almost all-white 



community. Black Htudentft anrl a black faculty 
member are part of thiH comiriittee, which haK 
scheduled rajj sesHions with downtown bubinesx- 
men, participated in Bensitivity seminartt, h<-lf>e<l 
blacks obtain part-time jobs, and conducted 
sessions on community housing recommending.' 
minimum codes. 

(2) The Office of Public Information ha- rnad>- 
a special effort to publicize, through the media, 
the activities, programs, and academic develop- 
ments of minority groups. 

PLATTEVILLE A university roundtable is 
held in the Spring and Fall. Attempts have been 
made to have representatives from the Ebony 
Club be present. 

RIVER FALLS We agree with this recom- 
mendation and have been working in this area 
for many years. 

STEVENS POINT Our community relations 
program follows this recommendation currently 
and has for some years. Our minority and inter- 
national students participate in a continuous 
program of community teaching toward this end. 

SUPERIOR has a long record of community 
involvement. Faculty hold responsible positions 
in city government, many are members of local 
civic and fraternal organizations. Thus, there has 
been a constant flow of communication and 
activity between students and townspeople. 
Black students are encouraged to participate in 
campus organizations, including honor groups, 
academic groups, fraternities, and sororities. A 
black student was president of one of the largest 
fraternities last year. 

WHITEWATER In the Fall of 1970. the 
university brought community, student, and 
faculty together in a leadership conference aimed 
at developing positive attitudes toward others. 
The president has tried to develop a community - 
university committee with representation from all 
segments of the campus and community to give 
leadership in town-gown relations. We have had 
some successes and some failures but will continue 
to develop plans and programs to help all members 
of the community to accept one another and to 
work together amicably. 

Recommendation 20 

WSU's, host city public officials, chambers of com- 
merce, and student leaders should develop programs 



90 



jor assurinp that lornl merchants adhere to fair and 
equal standards in dealing with students, regardless 
of cultural and ethnic differences. Students and the 
WSU^s should, for this purpose at least, make their 
economic power felt in the host city. 

Response 

The presidents are alert to this problem and are 
working witli ciiamhers of commerce and city 
officials to improve relationships between business 
establishments and all students. 

EAU CLAIRE The student senate on the 
campus of WSU-Eau Claire has not noted any 
examples of unfair and unequal standards that 
might have been used with students. 

LA CROSSE The chamber of commerce at 
La Crosse has indicated an interest in dialogue 
with students. 

OSHKOSH The university community, 
through newspapers and other statements, has 
attempted to impress upon the Oshkosh com- 
munity the economic impact of the university. 
Expansion of community efforts to employ black 
students and to attract additional permanent 
black families to the community would assist 
in relieving the problems which grow from 
uniqueness of the black students in the com- 
munity. The chamber of commerce-university 
relations committee has recommended to those 
who conduct training sessions for retail personnel 
that the problem evident in Finding 20 be dis- 
cussed and that corrective actions be instituted. 

PLATTEVILLE The university will initiate 
programs to ensure equal and fair treatment of 
students. An attempt to employ economic 
sanctions against specific merchants is not 
considered, however, to be in the interests of 
overall success of this effort. 

RIVER FALLS We approve the recom- 
mendation but want to make certain we are 
working with facts and not hearsay. 

STEVENS POINT All eyes are on all 
students when they shop because of a growing 
penchant toward shoplifting in the young. We 
believe students are treated fairly and equitably, 
regardless of cultural and ethnic differences. 

SUPERIOR The information services office 
of WSU-Superior has contacted the manager of 



the Superior Chamber of Commerce in regard 
to this matter. It has been proposed that the 
retail merciiants division discuss at their next 
meeting the possibility of identifying any activity 
prejudicial to WSU minority students. 

WHITE\^ATER The city manager of the 
city of Whitewater met with the black students 
in the Spring of 1971, shortly after his arrival 
in the city, and stated that if any black students 
were mistreated by merchants or city officials, 
they should go directly to him and he would 
investigate the matter thoroughly. 

Recommendation 21 

Campus security forces should be trained un tech- 
niques and briefed on their responsibility to recognize 
and be catalysts for reducing the intensity and scope 
of incipient violence on campus. 

Response 

This recommendation is obviously endorsed 
by all the presidents. Every campus moved long 
ago to augment such aims, but only recently has 
there been need for great concern, and the 
allocation of enlarged staff. Campus security 
personnel are in various stages of completing 
more advanced security training. The reports 
of the presidents indicate acceptance of this goal 
and, in some cases, give brief summaries showing 
what progress has been made in security staffing. 

Recommendation 22 

Police should maintain strict impartialitv in dealing 
with interracial complaints and should treat minority 
students — all students — ivith the courtesy to which 
citizens are entitled. 



Response 

All of the universities agree with this recom- 
mendation and realize the need to eliminate any 
prejudice toward minority students. 

EAU CLAIRE The Eau Claire police chief 
has had an objective of fair treatment of all 
persons in the community. About two-thirds 
of the Eau Claire police officers are or have been 
students at WSU-Eau Claire. A black student 
has just been added to the city police force. 



91 



LA f'.ROSSE Our poHition is that sliident 
personnel workers slioiild deal with htii<lent 
complaints as much as possible. City police have 
demonstrated restraint and courtesy in dealing 
with students. 

SUPEKIOK J'he chief of police reports that 
he knows of no discriminatory practices on the 
part of local yjolice and urges that black students 
let it be known immediately if they feel any 
discrimination. He would be happy to have the 
university information services arrange dialogues 
between the police department and minority 
students. 

Recommendation 23 

Conslittitionul standards mandate equal treatment 
of white and minority students apprehended by- 
police. The Platteville Police Department should 



de^iist from this firatlire oj di/fi-rentiat treitlment 
immedialt'ly and uilhiti a rfusonulAi- limi- the Slate 
attorney generar.s ojjire should make ini/uiry to 
determine that the firailire has been disronliiuieil. 

ResporiMe 

The Platteville Police Department categori- 
cally denies the charge that it discriminates 
against black students by treating them differ- 
ently than white students when they are under 
arrest. The department reports that persons in 
custody are transferred to the county jail in 
Lancaster when they are to be detained for 
several days, because that jail has better facilities. 
To document this point, the records of Chief Clay 
Mellor indicate that, in the period May 1, 1969 
to October 16, 1970, three blacks and 17 whites 
were sent to the Grant County jail at Lancaster. 



92 



MINORITY GROUP STUDENTS 

IN THE 

WISCONSIN STATE UNIVERSITIES 



Problems, Challenges, Programs 

Part III 

Summary and Conclusions 



The Wisconsin State Committee pre-empted 
any studied response of the Wisconsin State 
Universities System while the manuscript of the 
report was in draft form hy the procedure followed 
in releasing its findings to tlie pubhc. The report 
was announced in a news conference one day 
after the executive director of the WSU System 
iiad received a confidential copy of the document. 
The Committee was accorded access to any and 
all records desired on tiie four campuses visited 
and university personnel were made available 
for interview as requested. Much time was 
spent on each WSU campus bv faculty and 
administrators who compiled the data required 
by the Committee. Prior to the time that the 
report, "The Black Student in the Wisconsin 
State Universities System", was released, no 
Vt'SU officials were asked to examine it for ac- 
curacy of data and interpretation. 

In the System view, there are in the report, 
many statements and interpretations which the 
presidents, after researching the matters on the 
iucal campus, cannot corroborate, as evidenced 
l)y the campus input in Part II of this reply. 
At times, the language of the State Committee's 
report hints at undisclosed sources of data with 
references couched in vague terms that permit 
neither verification nor rebuttal. The situation 
is made more complex because System representa- 
tives, in their responses, often tended to agree 
objectively with many of the recommendations, 
yet found themselves unable to endorse the 
findings leading up to those recommendations. 



Although the problems inherent in the asser- 
tions of fact and tin; presentation of the report 
blunt its professional impact, the State uni- 
versities acknowledge the sincere interest in and 
dedication of the writers of the report to the 
goal of enhancing educational opportunity for 
minority groups. In this objective, the authors 
of tiie report and every State university are 
agreed without reservation. It is to this call for 
progress toward that objective that the System 
universities have responded in tliesc pages. 

Among the number of areas of agreement 
between the Conunittee and the universities are, 
for example, the specific point that all agree that 
efforts should be made to educate not only more 
black students but all minority students at System 
universities. Personalized recruitment is one way 
to help increase minority enrollments and these 
plans are already underway. In order to survive 
once in college, minority students should be 
provided with "academic survival kits". It is not 
yet clear whether the Oshkosh plan for orienta- 
tion or some other is most effective, but more 
help in orientation, counseling, remedial work, 
tutoring, and [)rovision for appropriate curricula 
are all endorsed by WSU officials. There is 
general concurrence that departures from strict 
interpretation of entrance, retention, financial 
aid rules and regulations may be appropriate. 
There should, wherever possible, be more employ- 
ment of minority people in higher education. 
Minority groups should have as nnich freedom 
as any other students to live together or apart and 



93 



be accorded every o|)|)i>rtiinify open to majority 
students hy the teriiiK of reHidence liall, hc>uhiiig, 
or athletic competition rules. Where town-gown 
relations may be an issue, students and faculty 
can join hands in a concerted program of educa- 
tion in the community. 

There are some recommendations and quite a 
few findings of the Wisconsin Civil Jiiglits Com- 
mittee with wliich not all universities concur. 
Concerning the increasing of black student 
enrollments, the question is not whether they 
should be increased but how and to what 
extent it can be done in the light of no special 
funds available to support the minority instruc- 
tional effort. It is noteworthy tbat the Com- 
mittee has no new suggestions to expand the 
areas or sources of minority group recruitment 
that are already "plowed ground" in Wisconsin. 

The universities feel strongly that minority 
students should be allowed to attend the campus 
of their choice. If one must think of numbers 
and quotas, then a System total is the only 
meaningful formula. 

WSU officials consider the 90 percent retention 
rate for blacks unrealistic, since no institution 
approaches that goal for its majority students. 

Responses of WSU officials show lack of fidl 
concurrence with some Committee proposals 
dealing with financial arrangements for needy- 
students. These students are in a serious dilemma. 
Grants are hard to come by, for students have 
a low probability of survival. If it seems in- 
advisable for such students to borrow, they must 
work while attending school — an even less 
advisable alternative according to some officials. 
The universities do not recommend having 
financial aids packaged in a central (HEAB) 
office. 

Some of tbe most serious points of disagreement 
between the Committee and WSU officials are 
the "findings" of the Committee concerning the 
status of civil rights compliance in the board 
office and on the WSU campuses. For a case in 
point, consider the central administration of 
the WSU System. Daily communications and 
reports of System office activities reveal the 
deep concern of the executive director and staff 



concerning civil right'i matters. A tangible out- 
come of thiH concern is the employment of Mr. 
Kdward Spiccr as a full-time co<jrdinator of 
system minority groups. Though it was not 
solicited, evidence of Mr. .Spicer's work on 
several campuses could easily have been provided 
to the Committee. 

The Civil Rights Committee finding*! that 
refer to black student and black faculty quotas 
are clearly vulnerable. Kvery major placement 
director knows that black faculty are in short 
supply and in great demand throughout the 
United States. Black universities are among the 
first to object to faculty recruitment raids on 
their campuses. The System is expected to hire 
qualified black faculty members when the number 
available is a fraction of those desired and the 
salaries required are an enviable increment 
above the present WSU schedules. The WSU's 
are expected to enroll more black students from 
a pool of identified college prospects which is 
becoming relatively smaller as higher education 
opportunities are made increasinglv available to 
the motivated, disadvantaged innercore student. 

A review of the WSU responses concerning 
treatment of minorities on campuses and in 
campus communities shows a great deal of 
sincere, sustained effort and many grass-roots 
programs being carried on under the leadership 
of WSU officials. Many of these programs were 
started a number of years ago, long before the 
Committee launched this investigation. These 
statements are at distinct variance with the 
findings of the Civil Rights Conuiiittee. Certainly 
the factual statements and first hand observations 
provided in Part II do not bear out the sweeping 
indictment of callousness to the needs of blacks 
and other minority students. 

Finally, minority students are not likely- to be 
motivated to enroll in the Wisconsin State 
Universities, either because of the inaccurate 
portrayal of the lot of minority students on WSU 
campuses, or the negative attitudes engendered 
by- this report on "The Black Student in the 
Wisconsin State Universities System". If this 
is the effect, not only they, but the whole State 
of Wisconsin, will be the losers. 



•ft us. GOVEHNMENT PRINTING OFFICfc 1971 O— 444-743 



94